A working historical and theoretical fragment on the origin of American government and modern propaganda. The Origins of American Government
The American government was not designed or intended to be a democracy. Democracy comes from the Greek (δημοκρατία) meaning 'people and power.' Representative democracy did not exist even as a concept in ancient Rome. Early eligible American voters were white men who owned a significant amount of property. To call this system a democracy is to commit violence against the English language. The American government was intended to be an oligarchy (rule of the few) or more accurately, a plutocracy, (rule of the rich).
While the American government has evolved significantly over the years this central tenant has remained intact. A ten year study analyzing the data from every public policy decision from 1981 to 2002, 1,779, found that the average American voter had no effect on the American government whatsoever. The median American voter's influence approached near zero on nearly every US decision made over two decades. While this government system has remained relatively stable over time, the myths used to describe it, however, have become increasingly elaborate.
"The use of sound and speech as substitutes for substance," Jacques Ellul writes, "are rites that go back to the beginnings of the human race."
just as the country that arms on a grand scale is the one that continually talks of peace and keeps showing the dove and the olive branch; it is the dictator with his police and party organization who will stimulate his most fervent zealots to make speeches to the effect that freedom has finally been assured and democracy finally realized. Chief Justice Marshall
If one has attained an object, why talk about it? If one really lives in peace and freedom, why make them the subject of speeches? Their very existence and the pleasure of enjoying them should be enough. When there is plenitude, what can be added to it? The lover united with his beloved never writes poems; poetry is produced only as a result of absence and loss. Poetry is only a verbal affirmation of love when love is no longer anything but a cloud, regret, anxiety attacking the individual's uncertainty.
, in his opinion in the case of McCulloch v. Maryland, articulates the prevailing mythology clearly:
The government proceeds directly from the people...[they] were at perfect liberty to accept or reject it; and their act was final. . . . The government of the Union...is emphatically and truly a government of the people. In form and in substance it emanates from them. Its powers are granted by them, and are to be exercised directly on them, and for their benefit. . . . It is the government of all; its powers are delegated by all; it represents all, and acts for all
The words of the founding fathers, however, obliterate these dogmas. “The first object of government,” James Maddison
(principal architect of the Constitution) writes in ‘Federalist No. 10,’ is the protection of the “faculties [in] men, from which the rights of property originate.” “Factions…share the same opinions, the same passions, and the same interests,” and is a synonym for ‘social class.’ “The most common and durable source of factions has been the various and unequal distribution of property,” Maddison continues, “Those who hold and those who are without property have ever formed distinct interests in society.”
Those who are creditors, and those who are debtors, fall under a like discrimination. A landed interest, a manufacturing interest, a mercantile interest, a moneyed interest, with many lesser interests, grow up of necessity in civilized nations, and divide them into different classes, actuated by different sentiments and views. The regulation of these various and interfering interests forms the principal task of modern legislation and involves the spirit of party and faction in the necessary and ordinary operation of government
…a republic [is] the delegation of the government to a small number of citizens…whose wisdom may best discern the true interest of their country. …the public voice, pronounced by the representative of the people, will be more consonant to the public good than if pronounced by the people themselves, convened for the purpose…[making it more difficult if] a common motive exists, for all who feel it to discover their own strength and to act in unison with each other. …[such as in] the abolition of debts, for an equal distribution of property, or for any other improper or wicked project, will be less apt to pervade the whole body of the Union than a particular member of it…
The debates at the Constitutional Convention were secret because they were plotting a coup d'état of the existing American government (‘Articles of Confederation’). The purpose of the Constitutional Convention, Alexander Hamilton
exclaimed, was "to take into consideration the Trade and Commerce of the United States." Exact transcripts were not recorded but summary notes of the proceedings survived. “There will be debtors and creditors, and an unequal possession of property. There will be particularly the distinction of rich & poor,” Maddison stated at the time, “this indeed is the ground-work of aristocracy…” Continuing:
In framing a system which we wish to last for ages, we should not lose sight of the changes which ages will produce. An increase of population will of necessity increase the proportion of those who will labor under all the hardships of life, & secretly sigh for a more equal distribution of its blessings. These may in time outnumber those who are placed above the feelings of indigence. According to the equal laws of suffrage, the power will slide into the hands of the former. No agrarian attempts have yet been made in this Country, but symptoms of a leveling spirit, as we have understood, have sufficiently appeared in certain quarters to give notice of the future danger. How is this danger to be guarded against, on republican principles?
“Those who own the country,” John Jay
(first Supreme Court Justice of the US) states matter of fact, “ought to govern it.” The original founders were mostly lawyers who lived in coastal towns. Of the original framers, their economic resources were generally: owning government debt (public securities), land speculation, credit, mercantile/manufacturing/shipping, slave holding. Not one member in attendance represented the ‘immediate personal economic interests of the small farmer or mechanic classes.’ The vast majority–5/6ths–were immediately, directly, and personally invested in the outcome of the constitutional conventions and more or less benefitted from its subsequent adoption. Alexis de Tocquevill
e was a French official who traveled to America with the intent of studying its prison system. He ended up writing ‘Democracy in America (1835),’ which became a timeless masterpiece of sociology, prophecy, political science, and enlightenment values.
If despotism were to be established amongst the democratic nations of our days, it might assume a different character; it would be more extensive and more mild; it would degrade men without tormenting them. ...[In America] the will of man is not shattered, but softened, bent, and guided: men are seldom forced to act, but they are constantly restrained from acting: such a power does not destroy, but prevents existence; it does not tyrannize, but compresses, enervates, extinguishes, and stupefies a people, till each nation is reduced to be nothing better than a flock of timid and industrious animals, of which the government is the shepherd.
Our contemporaries are constantly excited by two conflicting passions; they want to be led, and they wish to remain free...They devise a sole, tutelary, and all-powerful form of government, but elected by the people. They combine the principle of centralization and that of popular sovereignty; this gives them a respite; they console themselves [with the] reflection that they have chosen their own guardians.
It is in vain to summon a people, which has been rendered so dependent on the central power, to choose from time to time the representatives of that power; this rare and brief exercise of their free choice, however important it may be, will not prevent them from gradually losing the faculties of thinking, feeling, and acting for themselves, and thus gradually falling below the level of humanity.
The democratic nations which have introduced freedom into their political constitution, at the very time when they were augmenting the despotism of their administrative constitution, have been led into strange paradoxes. ...It is, indeed, difficult to conceive how men who have entirely given up the habit of self-government should succeed in making a proper choice of those by whom they are to be governed; and no one will ever believe that a liberal, wise, and energetic government can spring from the suffrages of a subservient people.
The Dean of American journalism, Walter Lippmann
, notes that Thomas Jefferson first popularized the myths and stereotypes which came to crystalize American historical memory. “The Federalist argued for union, not for democracy, and even the word republic had an unpleasant sound to George Washington when he had been for more than two years a republican president,” Lippmann writes:
The constitution was a candid attempt to limit the sphere of popular rule; the only democratic organ it was intended the government should possess was the House, based on a suffrage highly limited by property qualifications. …Jefferson referred to his election as ‘the great revolution of 1800,’ but more than anything else it was a revolution in the mind. Modern Propaganda
No great policy was altered, but a new tradition was established. For it was Jefferson who first taught the American people to regard the Constitution as an instrument of democracy, and he stereotyped the images, the ideas, and even many of the phrases, in which Americans ever since have described politics to each other.
...Partly by actual amendment, partly by practice, as in the case of the electoral college, but chiefly by looking at it through another set of stereotypes, the façade was no longer permitted to look oligarchic.
The American people came to believe that their constitution was a democratic instrument, and treated it as such. They owe that fiction to the victory of Jefferson, and a great conservative fiction it has been. It is a fair guess that if everyone had always regarded the Constitution as did the author of it, the Constitution would have been violently overthrown, because loyalty to the Constitution and loyalty to democracy would have seemed incompatible. Jefferson resolved that paradox by teaching the American people to read the Constitution as an expression of democracy.
Modern propaganda refers to the verbal translation of events through the mass media: experiences are translated into words, words into images. Newspapers, magazines, television, radio, billboards, social media, broadcast and circulate them infinitely. Everyday life is translated into images and image is now everything. Being regressed to having and having to merely appearing. Life feels increasingly fake while the TV images become more realistic.
Prior to the social sciences and mass communication, propaganda was largely an artform, resembling formal rhetoric. The modern technological age is propagandas point of departure. Its supreme law is concern with effectiveness. Modern propaganda is pragmatic. Far from intricate today, propaganda targets the human subconscious.
Propaganda is never concerned with individuals but masses. Propaganda always addresses itself simultaneously to the individual and the mass. The mass media situations man exactly in this scenario, alone in the mass. Individuals in a group feel more certain while becoming increasingly suggestible; feel measured while acting impulsively.
The general purpose of propaganda is to induce mass conformist action or inaction. Every new mass communication technology is immediately conceived in the context of the emerging, disruptive, propaganda framework.
Propaganda conditions man to the rhythm of a totalitarian society. It is not a collection of images but a social relation between people, mediated by images. Propaganda, like social media, reunites us but only in our separateness. The Origins of Modern Propaganda
By the late 1910s, propaganda had become a “self-conscience art and a regular organ of popular government.” Britain pioneered the field with the creation of the Ministry of Information, which sought “to direct the thoughts of much of the world.” Its central purpose was to persuade the American government to enter WWI. Woodrow Wilson had campaigned on staying out of the war and a majority of Americans were in favor of remaining neutral. In response to the anti-war sentiment, President Wilson created the Committee on Public Information (CPI or Creel Commission) to “fight for the minds of men, for the conquest of their convictions” by “spreading the gospel of Americanism to every corner of the globe.” The Institute for Propaganda Analysis notes:
The CPI blended advertising techniques with a sophisticated understanding of human psychology and its efforts represented the first time that a modern government disseminated propaganda on such a large scale. It is fascinating that this phenomenon, often linked with totalitarian regimes, emerged in a democratic state
Under the direction of George Creel
, the CPI was instructed to “sell the war to America.” Liberal intellectuals were enlisted from the business, media, academic, entertainment and art industries. Will Irwin, an ex-CPI member, would later confess, “We never told the whole truth–not by any manner of means” and cited an intelligence officer as stating “you can’t tell them the truth.”
The US war time environment was frighteningly similar to a totalitarian state. “With the aid of Roosevelt,” Randolph Bourne wrote during the war, “the murmurs became a monotonous chant.” According to Creel, 20,000 different newspapers were publishing CPI propaganda every day. The CPI organized 75,000 Four Minute Men (public speakers who could be ready in 4 minutes notice) who gave 755,190 speeches to over 300 million people. Weekly magazines and journals were given to over 600,000 teachers and 200,000 slides were created for detailed lectures. 1,438 different designs were produced for posters, window cards, newspaper advertisements, cartoons, seals, and buttons.
Congressional attempts to suppress Creel’s book ‘How We Advertised America’ (1920) failed. “In all things, from first to last, without halt or change,” Creel wrote, “it was a plain publicity proposition, a vast enterprise in salesmanship, the world’s greatest adventure in advertising.” The CPI’s success established the “standard marketing strategies for all future wars” by selling the war as one that would “make the world safe for democracy." Congress would end the CPI’s funding on November 12, 1918. Two years later, however, the director of the CPI’s Foreign Division stated that propaganda had continued unabated in the postwar world.
The history of propaganda in the war would scarcely be worthy of consideration here, but for one fact– it did not stop with the armistice. No indeed! The methods invented and tried out in the war were too valuable for the uses of governments, factions, and special interests.
The CPI’s success inspired leading ‘democratic’ theorists like Walter Lippmann, Edward Bernays, and Harold Lasswell. Lippmann’s bombshell, Public Opinion (1922) and its sequel The Phantom Public (1927) developed a highly detailed theory which he called the “manufacture of consent.” The term propaganda entered the Encyclopedia Britannica the same year that Lippmann published Public Opinion. Regarded as the Dean of US Journalism, he practically invented the serious newspaper column while writing for the New Republic. “Millions of readers,” Lippmann’s biographer Ronald Steele explains, were “relying on him to explain and interpret the great issues of the day.” Lippmann believed that the chief goal of news was not objective reporting but to “signalize an event.” Behind the scenes he worked with the CIA writing propaganda leaflets, interrogating prisoners, and coordinating government intelligence. Lippmann
worked with every American president from Woodrow Wilson to Richard Nixon and is commonly regarded as “the most influential commentator of the 20th century.” In Public Opinion, he explains that American democracy had reached a new paradigm.
That the manufacture of consent is capable of great refinements no one, I think, denies. …the opportunities for manipulation open to anyone who understands the process are plain enough. The creation of consent is not a new art. It is a very old one which was supposed to have died out with the appearance of democracy. But it has not died out. It has, in fact, improved enormously in technique, because it is now based on analysis rather than on rule of thumb. …As a result of psychological research, coupled with the modern means of communication, the practice of democracy has turned a corner. A revolution is taking place, infinitely more significant than any shifting of economic power. Within the life of the generation now in control of affairs, persuasion has become a self-conscious art and a regular organ of popular government. None of us begins to understand the consequences, but it is no daring prophecy to say that the knowledge of how to create consent will alter every political calculation and modify every political premise. Under the impact of propaganda, not necessarily in the sinister meaning of the word alone, the old constants of our thinking have become variables. It is no longer possible, for example, to believe in the original dogma of democracy
This is a natural development because “the common interests very largely elude public opinion entirely, and can be managed only by a specialized class.” Lippmann expounded on these ideas in the Phantom Public arguing that “the public must be put in its place” so that “responsible men” can “live free of the trampling and roar of a bewildered herd.” These “ignorant and meddlesome outsiders” do have a “function.” They are to be “spectators, not participants.” According to Lippmann, the public’s highest ideal is to align with a member of the business class during a symbolic election. Taking the phenomenon a step further, Sigmund Freud’s nephew, Edward Bernays
(ex-CPI member) turned Lippmann’s theories into practical step-by-step manuals –Crystallizing Public Opinion (1923), Propaganda (1928), Public Relations (1952), and Engineering Consent (1969). Bernays writes:
It was, of course, the astounding success of propaganda during the war that opened the eyes of the intelligent few in all departments of life to the possibilities of regimenting the public mind. The American government and numerous patriotic agencies developed a technique which, to most persons accustomed to bidding for public acceptance, was new. They not only appealed to the individual by means of every approach—visual, graphic, and auditory—to support the national endeavor, but they also secured the cooperation of the key men in every group —persons whose mere word carried authority to hundreds or thousands or hundreds of thousands of followers. They thus automatically gained the support of fraternal, religious, commercial, patriotic, social and local groups whose members took their opinions from their accustomed leaders and spokesmen, or from the periodical publications which they were accustomed to read and believe. At the same time, the manipulators of patriotic opinion made use of the mental clichés and the emotional habits of the public to produce mass reactions against the alleged atrocities, the terror and the tyranny of the enemy. It was only natural, after the war ended, that intelligent persons should ask themselves whether it was not possible to apply a similar technique to the problems of peace
Some of Bernays’ more notable clients included: Proctor and Gamble, CBS, the American Tobacco Company, General Electric, Dodge Motors, the Public Health Service along with every American president from Woodrow Wilson to Dwight D. Eisenhower.
Corporations turned to Bernays and others to fight the “hazard facing industrialists” which is “the newly realized political power of the masses.” Propaganda “in its sum total,” Bernays wrote at the time, “is regimenting the public mind, every bit as much as an army regiments the body of its soldiers.” In his study published by the Annals of the American Academy of Political Science (March 1947) Bernays refers to the “engineering of consent” as the “very essence of democracy.” The term propaganda acquired negative connotations during WWII and was replaced with “public relations” and “communications.” Accordingly, Bernays is often regarded as the “Father of Public Relations” (some historians give the title to Ivy Lee) and Life magazine has listed him among the 100 most influential people of the 20th Century.
The term propaganda entered the Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences in 1933, when Harold Lasswell
explained that elites must abandon “democratic dogmatisms about men being the best judges of their own interests.” The “ignorance and superstition” of “the masses,” Lasswell explains, led to “the development of a whole new technique of control, largely through propaganda.” In his dissertation, Propaganda Technique in WWI (1927), he outlines strategies which have become standard operating procedure in modern geopolitical strategy.
So great are the psychological resistances to war in modern nations that every war must appear to be a war of defense against a menacing, murderous aggressor. There must be no ambiguity about who the public is to hate. …A handy rule for arousing hate is if at first they do not enrage, use an atrocity. …When the public believes that the enemy began the War and blocks a permanent, profitable and godly peace, the propagandist has achieved his purpose. …No doubt that, in the future, the propagandist may count upon a battalion of honest professors to rewrite history, to serve the exigencies of the moment.
Laswell went on to help found the fields of political science and communications. He invented the famous communication theory: who
with what effect
in which medium
. For further reading see Lasswell’s annotated bibliography Propaganda and Promotional Activities (1935) which sources thousands of books and studies on early American propaganda. Hitler and Nazi Propaganda
Contrary to modern characterizations, German propaganda was crude and unscientific throughout WWI. In 1922, Walter Lippmann wrote that the CPI tactic of “constant repetition” “impressed the neutrals and Germany itself.” Harold Lasswell’s extensive study of WWI propaganda (1927) concluded that Germany’s propaganda had been completely ineffective. Writing in Mein Kampf (1925), Adolf Hitler
It was not until the War that it became evident what immense results could be obtained by a correct application of propaganda. …Did we have anything you could call propaganda? I regret that I must answer in the negative. …The form was inadequate, the substance was psychologically wrong: a careful examination of German war propaganda can lead to no other diagnosis. …By contrast, the war propaganda of the English and Americans was psychologically sound. …I myself, learned enormously from this enemy propaganda. …The receptivity of the great masses is very limited, their intelligence is small, but their power of forgetting is enormous…
Hitler came to power 8 years later using little more than a microphone and a radio. Nazi propaganda was primarily based on Sigmund Freud’s theory of repression and libido. Hannah Arendt
discusses the guiding viewpoint of the Nazi party in The Origins of Totalitarianism (1948):
From the viewpoint of an organization which functions according the principle that whoever is not included is excluded, whoever is not with me is against me, the world at large loses all the nuances, differentiations, and pluralistic aspects which had in any event become confusing and unbearable to the masses who had lost their place and their orientation in it.
Edward Bernays autobiography, Biography of an Idea (1965) details a shocking claim that's been completely ignored by historians.
Karl von Weigand…just returned from Germany, [and he] was telling us about Goebbels and his propaganda plans to consolidate Nazi power. Goebbels had shown Weigand his propaganda library, the best Weigand had ever seen. Goebbels, said Weigand, was using my book Crystallizing Public Opinion as a basis for his destructive campaign against the Jews of Germany.
In 1939, a German research center was established to conduct opinion surveys–which used Harold Lasswell’s famous communication technique–to determine who
with what effect
in which medium,
inside Hitler’s Germany. These operations laid the foundation for the murder of roughly 90,000 people over the months that followed, mostly Jewish women and children. "This will always remain one of the best jokes of democracy," Joseph Goebbels
writes, "that it gave its deadly enemies the means by which it was destroyed."
At the Nuremberg War Crime Trials on April 18, 1946 the founder of the Nazi Gestapo, Hermann Goering
, explained the essence of war propaganda:
Naturally, the common people don’t want war; neither in Russia nor in England nor in America, nor for that matter in Germany. That is understood. …Voice or no voice, the people can always be brought to the bidding of the leaders. That is easy. All you have to do is tell them they are being attacked and denounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger. It works the same way in any country.
Charged with “crimes against humanity,” Goering avoided execution by committing suicide in his cell .In post-war America, however, many government propagandists went on to enjoy prestigious careers. The overseas director of the US Office of War Information (OWI), Edward Barret, wrote in 1953 that:
Among OWI alumni are the publishers of Time, Look, Fortune, and several dailies; the editors of such magazines as Holiday, Coronet, Parade, and the Saturday Review, editors of the Denver Post, New Orleans Times-Picayune, and others; the heads of the Viking Press, Harper & Brothers, and Farrar, Straus and Young; two Hollywood Oscar winners; a two-time Pulitzer prizewinner; the board chairman of CBS and a dozen key network executive; President Eisenhower’s chief speech writer; the editor of Reader’s Digest international editions; at least six partners of large advertising agencies; and a dozen noted social scientists.
Propaganda continued unabated in the post war world. Ronald Regan created ‘Operation Truth’ an initiative that would have made Orwell proud. In 2004 alone, the Bush Administration sent over 80 million on public relations. Bertrand Russell
once wrote, "after ages during which the earth produced harmless trilobites and butterflies, evolution progressed to the point at which it has generated Neros, Genghis Khans, and Hitlers. This, however, I believe is a passing nightmare; in time the earth will become again incapable of supporting life, and peace will return."
Finaly! Its desicion time, and I am currently choosing amongst some of my options. Just as a little back story, i didnt apply to any ivy's or hard schools for that matter. I kept it verry resonable because I had a low GPA. My stats were a 3.2uw GPA, 1310 SAT and My ECs were: Founde Founding member of my high schools FTC robotics team, (Lead Driver of 14712 Ruckus robotics in the 2022 year, and Trasnfered to 17253 as their lead Driver (ftc kids will know what this means lol)), Founder and Leader of my schools Sailing Team, Won first place in our first regata but havent been Verry lucky recently, and Founder and leader of the RC Car club at my school. On my personal time, since I am interested in the ocean, I decided to take on the challenge of converting an old 1989 Yamaha 2 stroke motor that was beyond repair, and making it electric, all under 400 dollars which is 10 times less than the electric motors that are available on the market today. The project turned out verry nicely and I made a video about it, and put it in the "extra information" section in my commonapp. By the looks of it, it seems like the addmissions people actualy looked at it because I was closely monitoring the amount of views it got (I set it to private invite link only) and it seemed to match up the amount of colleges I applied to.
Now.. Onto the schools I applied to (btw I applied Mechanical Engineering)
Colorado School Of Mines
Stevens Institute of Technology
University of Pittsburg
Rose Hulman (Accepted 20k scholarship)
Purdue (accepted to the Polytechnic Institute)
RIT (Accepted 52k scholarship)
Roger Williams (Accepted 78k Scholarship)
WPI (Accepted 72k Scholarship)
University of Vermont (Accepted 42k Scholarship
University of Rochester (44k scholarship)
So far... I am down to three schools that I will be visiting soon (WPI, UCONN and University of Rochester), and I was just wondering if yall have any input.
As always, Thanks!
I am once again compiling all of the double-barrel first names registered in Scotland, this time for babies born in 2022! This will be an absolutely mammoth list of names, so prepare yourself. As always, there are a lot more for girls than boys. And also as always, I'll be including a shorter list of the names that most stood out to me for their particular uniqueness at the end, as well as some observations.
GIRLS A Registered 1 time:
Aaliyah-Marie, Aaliyah-Rose, Abbie-Lilly, Abigail-Jane, Ada-Elizabeth, Ada-Grace, Ada-Rose, Addie-Lynn, Addison-Jayne, Addison-Jean, Ahsoka-Rogue, Aida-Leigh, Aila-Grace, Aila-Mae, Alaia-Rose, Alaiya-Rose, Alaiyah-Mae, Alannah-Rose, Alayna-Arub, Aleigha-Ruby, Aleisha-Anne, Alesha-Leigh, Alessia-Maria, Alice-Marie, Alira-Mae, Alissia-Rose, Alivia-Rose, Aliyah-Tracy, Alora-Rose, Alya-Mae, Alyssa-Beth, Alyssia-Grace, Amaya-Jane, Amaya-Rose, Amber-Lily, Amber-Louise, Amber-Rose, Amelia-Autumn, Amelia-Grace, Amelia-Jayne, Amelia-Mae, Amelia-Nur, Ameliah-Rose, Amy-May, Ana-Maria, Anais-Amira, Anais-Miriam, Anastasia-Maria, Andee-Rae, Andi-Lee, Anna-Danielle, Anna-Esma, Anna-Louise, Anna-Maria, Anna-Marie, Annie-Belle, Annie-Rose, Antonia-Maria, Antonia-Valentina, Anya-Rose, Aoife-Grace, Arabella-Rose, Arielle-Elora, Ari-Ella, Aria-Claire, Aria-Jea, Aria-Jo, Aria-Louise, Aria-Mae, Ariah-Rose, Ariana-Rose, Arianna-Bell, Arizona-Jane, Arla-Roy, Arlagh-Grace, Armani-Rose, Arya-Mae, Aseda-Lydia, Ashlee-Brooke, Ashley-Rose, Aurora-D, Aurora-Jane, Aurora-Leigh, Aurora-Rose, Autumn-Jane, Autumn-Rae, Autumn-Ri, Ava-Ann, Ava-Claire, Ava-Joy, Ava-Justine, Ava-Lucia, Ava-Marlene, Ava-Rai, Avah-Leigh, Avanna-Rose, Averie-Mae, Averley-Storm, Avie-Rose, Ayanna-Rose, Ayda-Rose, Ayla-Belle, Ayla-Nur, Ayla-Rae, Ayla-Rose, Aylee-Grace Registered 2 times:
Ada-Mae, Ada-Marie, Amelia-Jane, Anne-Marie, Aria-Grace, Ava-Marie Registered 3 times:
Ava-Leigh Registered 4 times:
Ava-Grace Registered 6 times:
Ava-Mae Registered 7 times:
Ava-Rose Registered 8 times:
Aria-Rose Registered 11 times:
Amelia-Rose B Registered 1 time:
Beatrice-Rose, Bella-Jay, Bella-Louise, Bella-Rae, Bethany-Rose, Betsy-Kate, Bianca-Andreea, Billeigh-Mae, Billie-Reign, Bismah-Nur, Blair-Mae, Blair-Robyn, Blossom-Bleu, Bobbi-May, Bonnie-Louise, Bonnie-Marie, Bonnie-Rose, Braelynn-Ann, Brainna-Lael, Brianna-Catherine, Brianna-Faith Registered 2 times:
Bonnie-Mae Registered 3 times:
Bella-Rose C Registered 1 time:
Cali-Rose, Callia-Louise, Callie-Grace, Callie-Leigh, Callie-Mae, Callie-Rae, Carina-Maria, Catherine-Lisa, Caydee-Lee, Ceitidh-May, Charlie-Rose, Charlotte-Blu, Charlotte-Elizabeth, Charlotte-Jane, Charlotte-Jean, Charlotte-Rose, Chloe-Rose, Christie-Rose, Christine-Jean, Chryslynne-Joy, Colette-Catherine, Connie-Jane, Connie-Mae, Corra-Beau D Registered 1 time:
Dahlia-Rae, Daisi-Anne, Daisie-Mae, Daisy-Belle, Daisy-Jade, Daisy-James, Daisy-Lou, Dara-Leigh, Darcey-Lee, Darcey-Leigh, Darcy-Live, Darcy-Mae, Darcy-Rae, Darla-Faith, Delia-Maria, Delilah-Rose, Demmi-Leigh, Dhalia-Rose, Dionne-Angel, Dolcie-Rae, Dottie-Leigh, Dua-Liyana, Dua-Nur Registered 2 times:
Daisy-Mae, Darci-Mae, Darcie-Mae, Demi-Lee E Registered 1 time:
Eden-Rae, Edie-Mae, Edith-Rose, Eilidh-Grace, Eilidh-Mae, Elaia-Belle, Elaiya-Mai, Elaiya-Nur, Elisia-Rose, Eliza-Jane, Eliza-Rose, Elizabeth-Ann, Elizabeth-Rose, Ella-Carina, Ella-Elizabeth, Ella-James, Ella-Lavina, Ella-May, Ella-Maye, Ella-Rae, Elle-Mae, Elleanor-Rae, Ellie-Anna, Allie-Rose, Ellie-Wren, Elly-Rose, Elodie-Jo, Elsa-Louise, Elsie-George, Elsie-Grace, Elsie-Mai, Elysia-Rose, Emii-Raee, Emilia-Rose, Emillie-Rose, Emily-Ann, Emily-Marie, Emma-Grace, Emma-Lee, Erin-Violet, Esmae-Rae, Esme-Rae, Etta-Mae, Eva-Grace, Evelyn-Iulia, Evelyn-Rose, Everly-Rose, Everly-Sienna, Evie-Mae, Evie-May Registered 2 times:
Ella-Anne, Ellie-Grace, Emily-Rose, Eva-Rose Registered 3 times:
Ellie-May, Esme-Rose Registered 4 times:
Ella-Louise, Ella-Mae, Evie-Rose Registered 5 times:
Ella-Grace, Ellie-Mae Registered 7 times:
Ella-Rose F Registered 1 time:
Faith-Alexia, Fallon-Rose, Farah-Louise, Fiadh-Rose, Francesca-Mary, Freya-Elise, Freya-Frances, Freya-Rose, Freya-Zahra G Registered 1 time:
Gail-Marie, Georgi-May, Georgia-Lee, Georgia-Rose, Gianna-Mae, Gracie-Anne, Gracie-Lee, Gracie-May Registered 3 times:
Gracie-Mae H Registered 1 time:
Habibah-Noor, Hailey-Rose, Hailie-Mae, Halle-Neil, Hallie-Mae, Hallie-May, Hani-Nur, Hanora-Mairi, Harleigh-Rose, Harley-Marie, Harli-Rose, Harper-Lily, Harper-Rae, Harper-Ray, Holly-Rose Registered 2 times:
Hallie-Rose, Harper-Leigh Registered 3 times:
Harper-Rose I Registered 1 time:
Iliana-Renee, Ilinca-Maria, Indica-Rose, Iona-May, Irah-Nur, Iris-Stella, Isabella-Grace, Isabella-Mae, Isabella-Rose, Isabelle-Ceit, Isla-Fay, Isla-Marie, Isla-Rae, Isla-Rose, Islay-Grace, Islay-Mae, Ivana-Rayn, Ivie-Rose, Ivy-Beth, Ivy-Blaire, Ivy-Bleu, Ivy-Grace, Ivy-Ivana, Ivy-Lou, Ivy-Rae, Ivy-Ray, Ivy-Wren Registered 3 times:
Ivy-Mae Registered 4 times:
Isla-Grace, Isla-Mae Registered 6 times:
Isla-May Registered 12 times:
Ivy-Rose J Registered 1 time:
Jacey-Leigh, Jamie-Jo, Jamie-Lyn, Jannat-Hawwa, Jaymie-Rae, Jenova-Reign, Jessie-Mae, Jessie-Marie, Jessie-Rae, Jorgi-Leigh, Jorgia-Rose, Jorja-Mae, Josie-Leigh, Jozie-Jane, Julia-May Registered 2 times:
Jamie-Leigh Registered 3 times:
Jessica-Rose K Registered 1 time:
Kacey-Leigh, Kallie-Jo, Kallie-Rose, Kamali-Mae, Kara-Jade, Karcey-Leigh, Karlie-Rae, Katie-Morag, Katie-Paige, Kaycie-Leigh, Kayla-Rose, Keelie-Rose, Kenslie-Grace, Kereen-Hope, Khali-Rose, Kiah-Mae, Kinaya-Priya, Kinsley-Rae, Konnie-Ann, Kyla-Mae, Kylah-Rose, Kyra-Jane, Kyra-Leigh, Kyra-Rae Registered 2 times:
Kylie-Rose L Registered 1 time:
Lacey-Hope, Lacey-Lee, Lacie-Mae, Lara-Grace, Lara-Jess, Latifa-Lily, Layla-Devi, Layla-Jean, Layla-Mae, Laylah-Mae, Laylah-Marie, Layne-Margaret, Leia-Grace, Leni-Rose, Lexi-Mae, Lexi-Quinn, Lexxie-Joanne, Lilah-Elidi, Lilah-Rose, Lilli-Grace, Lillie-Marie, Lillie-Rose, Lillie-Skye, Lilly-Grace, Lilly-Jo, Lily-Ann, Lily-Joy, Lily-Lisa, Lily-Louise, Lily-Maria, Lily-Michelle, Lok-Ying, Lori-Bell, Lori-Bella, Lorna-Rose, Lottie-Rose, Lotus-Maeve, Lucie-Bella, Lucia-Marie, Lucia-Rose, Luisa-Mae, Luna-Isobel, Luna-Rae, Luna-Rose, Lylah-Scott Registered 2 times:
Lara-Sophia, Leah-Rose, Lillie-Grace, Lilly-Anna, Lilly-Anne, Lily-Grace, Lily-Jane, Lottie-Mae, Lucy-Rose Registered 3 times:
Layla-Rose, Lilly-Mae, Lilly-Rose, Lily-Mae, Lyla-Rose Registered 4 times:
Lilly-May, Lyla-Mae Registered 5 times:
Lillie-Mae Registered 13 times:
Lily-Rose M Registered 1 time:
Mabel-Rose, Macey-Reece, Maci-Leigh, Maci-Mae, Mackenzie-Rae, Maddi-Rose, Maddison-Lee, Maddison-Rose, Maddisyn-Anne, Maeve-Eilidh, Maeve-Rose, Maggie-Jo, Mairead-Jean, Mairi-Alice, Maisie-Jane, Maisie-Mae, Maja-Lou, Makayla-Marie, Margaret-Jane, Margaret-Rose, Marie-King, Marlie-Mae, Marnie-Mae, Marrissa-Claire, Mary-Kate, May-Isobella, Maya-Mae,Maya-Ray, Mata-Rose, Maylah-Georgia, Meadow-Mae, Medeea-Elena, Melody-Faith, Melody-Lee, Mia-Anne, Mia-Leigh, Mia-Marie, Mila-Grace, Mila-Romie, Millie-Ana, Millie-Anna, Millie-Grace, Millie-Hope, Millie-May, Millie-Rae, Minnie-Mae, Miruna-Maria, Mollie-Marie, Molly-Anne, Molly-Grace, Molly-Mae, Molly-May, Monica-Millie, Murren-Grace, Murron-Rae, Mya-Rose, Myah-Mae, Myla-Mae Registered 2 times:
Madison-Rose, Mia-Rose, Mila-Mae, Mila-Rose Registered 3 times:
Millie-Rose, Myla-Rose Registered 4 times:
Millie-Mae N Registered 1 time:
Naomi-Natalia, Naya-Rayne, Nevaeh-Keiva, Nevaeh-Mae, Nevaeh-May, Nevayah-Rose, Nita-Marie, Noa-Rose, Noah-Mae, Noor-Ul-Ain, Noor-Ul-Huda, Norrie-Lee, Nova-Grace, Noa-Jane, Nova-Lee, Nova-Lilly, Nova-Louise, Nova-Mae, Novah-Leigh, Noveah-Rose Registered 2 times:
Nova-Leigh, Nova-Rae, Nova-Rose O Registered 1 time:
Oakleigh-Rae, Ocean-Raye, Ocean-Reine, Ocean-Rose, Octavia-Lumi, Olivia-Mia, Ophelia-Rose, Ophelia-Skye, Orla-Beth, Orla-Jai, Orla-Rose, Orlagh-Kerry, Orlagh-Mae, Orlaith-Grace, Orlaith-May Registered 2 times:
Olivia-Grace, Olivia-May Registered 5 times:
Olivia-Mae Registered 6 times:
Olivia-Rose P Registered 1 time:
Paisley-Rose, Payson-Thea, Piper-Rose, Pixie-Leigh, Pixie-Marie, Poppie-Grace, Poppy-Kali, Poppy-Rose R Registered 1 time:
Rachel-Grace, Raya-Faraz, Raya-Mae, Rayneigh-Leigh, Remmie-Rose, Renee-Ruby, Renezimai-River, Reva-Mia, Rhia-Lee, River-Ann, River-Daisy, River-Jane, River-Jax, River-Lee, River-Rose, Robyn-Winter, Rocky-Ray, Roma-May, Romany-Jane, Romii-Lee, Rosa-Fern, Rosa-Grace, Rose-Leah, Rose-Mary, Rosie-Mae, Rosie-Maie, Roxy-Jean, Rubie-Mai, Ruby-Anne, Ruby-Jayne, Ruby-Lou, Ruby-Lynn, Ruby-Mai, Ruby-Rae, Ruby-Rose, Ryver-Faith, Ryver-Rose Registered 2 times:
Remi-Rose, River-Rae, Ruby-Mae S Registered 1 time:
Sadie-Jane, Saleemah-Sarah, Sani-E-Zahra, Sapphera-Leigh, Sapphire-Maria, Sara-Maria, Sarah-Ceit, Savannah-Mae, Savannah-May, Savannah-Sylvar, Scarlett-Grace, Serena-Ivy, Serena-Skye, Sienna-Leigh, Sienna-Mae, Sienna-Rae, Sienna-Skye, Skye-Ida, Sjye-Jane, Skye-Rose, Skyla-Mae, Skylar-Rae, Skyler-Rose, Sofia-Mae, Sofija-Grace, Sophia-Mae, Sophie-Anne, Sophie-Mae, Sophie-May, Stella-Rose Registered 2 times:
Sapphire-Rose, Sophia-Rose Registered 3 times:
Sofia-Rose Registered 4 times:
Skylar-Rose T Registered 1 time:
Tahlia-Rose, Talia-Mae, Taylor-Louise, Taylor-Marie, Teigan-Mae, Thea-Louise, Tia-Raine, Tiana-Ariella, Tiana-Rose, Tillie-Anne, Tillie-May, Tilly-Ann, Tori-Leigh, Torra-Rose, Tuathla-Mae, Tyra-Rose Registered 2 times:
Thea-Rose U Registered 1 time:
Umme-Habiba V Registered 1 time:
Victoria-Reign, Viola-Rose, Violet-Anne, Violet-Rose W Registered 1 time:
Wafiyah-Noor, Willow-Anne, Willow-Grace, Willow-May, Willow-Nevaeh, Winter-Aurora, Winter-Grace, Winter-Madeline, Winter-May, Wynter-Geeann, Wynter-Ivy Registered 2 times:
Wynter-Rose Registered 3 times:
Winter-Rose Registered 6 times:
Willow-Rose Z Registered 1 time:
Zahra-Mae, Zara-Alora, Zara-Leigh, Zara-Mae, Zarah-Leigh, Ziara-Mae, Zipporah-Giselle
BOYS A Registered 1 time:
Aaron-James, Abdul-Azim, Abdul-Hadi, Abdul-Mu'izz, Abdul-Rehman, Abdur-Rahman, Abel-Kade, Adam-James, Ai-Joey, Alan-John, Alan-Junior, Alex-James, Alfie-Jack, Alfie-Jay, Alfie-Stephen, Ali-Adnan, Ali-Hasan, Alistair-James, Alvaro-Maxim, Andrei-Alexandru, Andrew-Junior, Angelo-Emanuel, Anthony-Junior, Apollo-James, Arc-James, Archie-John, Arlo-Rae, Arlo-Ray, Asher-Lee, Aston-Jay, Austin-Jett, Avery-James, Axel-Jax Registered 2 times:
Arlo-James, Arlo-John, Ashton-James Registered 3 times:
A-Jay Registered 4 times:
Alexander-James B Registered 1 time:
Bari-Ross, Barry-John, Billy-Jo, Billy-Joe, Blayke-Kai, Bradley-Jake, Braydon-Alexander, Brenden-Thomas, Brodie-James, Brodie-Lee C Registered 1 time:
C-Jay, Cahlan-James, Caiden-James, Cailean-Iain, Caius-Ajax, Caleb-Jonathon, Casian-Stefan, Catalin-Ioan, Charles-Joseph, Chester-Haze, Christopher-James, Ciaran-John, Clayton-Rayne, Cody-Jo, Cody-Lee, Colton-James, Colton-Wyatt, Connor-Scott, Conor-John, Copland-James, Cory-James D Registered 1 time:
Dameon-Jay, Danny-Junior, Dominic-Andrei, Dominic-Ionut, Dominic-Rafael, Dylan-Sean, Dyllan-Thomas, Dylon-James E Registered 1 time:
Edward-James, Elijah-Alexander, Elijah-Nathaniel, Elijah-Noah, Elijah-Scott, Emmanuel-Genius, Enzo-Santiago, Ethan-John, Evan-Joseph, Ezra-Dalton F Registered 1 time:
Finlay-Roy, Flynn-Rian, Freddie-John G Registered 1 time:
Gerry-Jnr, Grayson-James, Grayson-Lee H Registered 1 time:
Harri-Lewis, Harris-John, Harrison-Junior, Harvey-John, Henry-Nelson, Hudson-Daniel, Hudson-Ross, Hudson-Taylor, Hunter-Lee, Hunter-Rae Registered 2 times:
Hunter-James I Registered 1 time:
Iain-James, Inyo-Osuo, Isa-Azaan, Iyvn-Carter J Registered 1 time:
Jack-Joseph, Jackson-John, Jacob-Harrison, James-Brian, James-Brodie, James-Dylan, James-Graham, James-Joseph, James-Thomas, Jamie-Davie, Jamie-Junior, Jamille-Jacques, Jaxen-James, Jaxon-John, Jaxon-Paul, Jaxon-Reilly, Jaxson-John, Jaxson-Kendal, Jay-Jay, Jayden-Lee, Jettson-Paul, John-Alexander, John-Dag, John-Francis, John-Ross, John-Thomas, Joshua-Alexander, Jude-Lee, Junior-Barry Registered 2 times:
Jackson-James, John-Paul Registered 3 times:
Joshua-James Registered 4 times:
Jaxon-James K Registered 1 time:
Kai-Braxton, Kalvin-Sj, Karter-Terry, Kayden-James, Kayleb-Kristoffer, Kaylen-Robert, Keegan-John, Keir-Junior, Kelly-Flloyd, Kensdyn-Jaxx, Kerr-Jordon, Kevin-Thomas, Khai-Edward, Kholden-Kyle, Kieran-Blake, Koa-Forest, Koa-James, Koa-Reign, Kobe-Duncan, Kodi-Lio, Kyezer-Cruiz, Kylen-Parker, Kyren-George Registered 2 times:
Kal-El L Registered 1 time:
Layden-Kai, Layton-James, Leighton-James, Leo-Josh, Leo-Landon, Levi-River, Lewis-James, Liam-Alexander, Liam-Joseph, Lincoln-James, Lockie-James, Logan-John, Luca-Gray, Luca-James, Luca-Jay, Lucas-Jackson, Lucas-James, Luke-James, Luke-Jay, Lukka-Jay, Lyle-Jai Registered 2 times:
Leo-James M Registered 1 time:
Mark-Artem, Mark-Junior, Mason-Gray, Mason-John, Matei-Florin, Mbounta-Feuyou, Micah-James, Michael-Carson, Miller-Alexander, Mitchell-James, Mohammed-Saad, Muhammad-Saif N Registered 1 time:
Nehemiah-Ntare, Nicky-Jo, Noah-Alexandru Registered 3 times:
Noah-James O Registered 1 time:
Oaklyn-James, Oban-Bleu, Odhran-Oisin, Odin-John, Oliver-George, Oliver-Jake, Oliver-John, Orin-Perry P Registered 1 time:
Parker-Cole, Parker-Grey, Parker-James R Registered 1 time:
Rejji-Luan, Reo-James, Reo-Reece, Rhydian-Lee, Riccardo-Raymond, River-Jay, River-Theo, Roman-Cruz, Roman-Elliott, Roman-James, Roman-John, Ruhn-Joseph, Ryver-Blue Registered 2 times:
Riley-James S Registered 1 time:
Sean-Willian, Shane-Hayden, Sonny-Lee, Star-Daniels, Stephen-Junior, Sunni-Junior, Syed-Zaydan T Registered 1 time:
Taylor-James, Taylor-Jay, Teddi-Bleu, Teddy-Lee, Terry-Jack, Theo-Alexander, Theo-James, Theo-Shay, Theodore-Ross, Thomas-Anthony, Thomas-Campbell, Tierney-Jay, Tomas-Ryan, TOmmy-Lee, Tommy-Rae, Tsz-Long, Tyler-Thomas, Tyson-Bleu, Tyson-Joe Registered 2 times:
Theo-Jaxon, Tyler-Jay U Registered 1 time:
Uthman-Bilal V Regisered 1 time:
Vinny-Myles W Registered 1 time:
Warren-Jase, William-Angus, William-Ben, William-Wallace, Wylbur-Dag Z Registered 1 time:
- There are far fewer babies this year. When I did the 2021 names, it took me some serious work over several days to go through them all, and I did this in a few hours. Clearly the 2020 lockdown contributed to the name nerd cause.
- Once again, the most popular second part of a double-barrelled name for girls was Rose, showing up 137 times. Also popular, though not nearly as much so, are May/Mae, Grace, and Leigh.
- For boys, the most popular second part was James. Also popular are John and Lee.
- The most popular first names to be spiced up with a second part are Ava, Amelia, Ella, Isla, Lilly/Lily, Sophia/Sofia, and WinteWynter for girls. For boys, Jackson/Jaxon seems to be the only major stand-out.
- Once again, double-barrelling is much more common for girls. The most girls to be given the same double-barrel name (Lily-Rose) was 13, whereas the most popular double-barrelled name for boys (a tie with Alexander-James and Jaxon-James), had only 4 boys each.
- Double-barrelling names for boys seems to be marginally more popular among other cultures, with the amount of double-barrelled Muslim names representing a slightly higher ratio compared to English or Scottish names. Other cultures that are largely represented (such as Yoruba) tend to also prefer single names. (In fact, there are no double-barrelled Yoruba names in this list, which is a shame, as they have some of the most interesting names: Oluwademiladeogo (m) and Oluwafirekunmi (f) for example.)
Compared to last year, people have played it a lot safer! However, some names I noticed for their uniqueness: Girls:
Remi-Rose, Sapphire-Rose, Ahsoka-Rogue, Alissia-Rose, Aliyah-Tracy, Andee-Rae, Antonia-Valentina, Aira-Jea, Arianna-Bell, Arizona-Jane, Armani-Rose, Aseda-Lydia, Aurora-D, Autumn-Ri, Averley-Storm, Billeigh-Mae, Blossom-Bleu, Brainna-Lael, Ceitidh-May (phonetic Gaelic spelling of Katie), Charlotte-Blu, Chryslynne-Joy, Corra-Beau, Dionne-Angel, Dolcie-Rae, Elsie-George, Emii-Raee, Hanora-Mairi, Indica-Rose, Isabelle-Ceit (phonetic Gaelic spelling of Kate), Kereen-Hope, Lori-Bell, Lotus-Maeve, Marnie-Mae, Meadow-Mae, Medeea-Elena, Miruna-Maria, Murren-Grace, Murron-Rae, Nevaeh-Keiva, Nita-Marie, Octavia-Lumi, Pixie-Leigh, Pixie-Marie, Rayneigh-Leigh, Renezimai-River, Rocky-Ray, Romany-Jane, Sapphera-Leigh, Sapphire-Maria, Sarah-Ceit, Svannah-Sylvar, Torra-Rose, Tuathla-Mae, Victoria-Reign, Wynter-Geeann, Zara-Alora, Zipporah-Giselle Boys:
Alvaro-Maxim, Apollo-James, Arc-James, Blayke-Kai, Cahlan-James, Caius-Ajax, Chester-Haze, Clayton-Rayne, Copland-James, Emmanuel-Genius, Iyvn-Carter, Jamille-Jacques, Jettson-Paul, Kal-El, Kalvin-Sj, Kensdyn-Jaxx, Kholden-Kyle, Koa-Forest, Kyezer-Cruiz, Lockie-James, Lyle-Jai, Rhydian-Lee, Ryver-Blue, Star-Daniels, William-Wallace (for those unaware, this is the real first and last name of Braveheart, one of the main leaders during the First War of Scottish Independence), Wylbur-Dag, Zander-Rei