Pmc editor

Stuck on "Getting Acquainted"

2023.03.19 01:03 4e6f626f6479 Stuck on "Getting Acquainted"

I have the DSPT, it says it's encoded but it doesn't beep when I get to the Bridge.
When I try to cross the Bridge I die to the mines.

not sure what other information could be helpful...
- I used the profile editor to "mark for finish" or whatever "Assesment Part 1" (the 20 PMC kills near the Bridge)
- I have SVM installed, though I didn't actually change any settings
submitted by 4e6f626f6479 to SPTarkov [link] [comments]

2023.03.16 16:16 LettuceDifferent5104 Strand Untangled: A Paracausal Superposition of Magnetic Field Lines

So in this post I want to discuss Strand, specifically it's physical manifestation. I believe it is a paracausal magnetic superposition and that many of it's visual properties can be observed in extremely high magnetic fields in which the field lines become braided, tangled or twisted into magnetic flux ropes.
I wrote a post before the release of Lightfall hypothesizing that Strand would be linked to String Theory and Panpsychism. While some of the concepts mentioned in that post are still important for understanding Strand (such as the hard problem of consciousness), in many ways it was off the mark. While mention of the "fabric of the universe" and the stringy nature of Strand seemed to allude to String Theory, this seems to be, at least at this stage, superficial at best.

Matter of Perception

Before we get into my analysis however it should be stated that what I will be discussing is the physical manifestation. During Lightfall Osiris elaborates on the Light's connection to the physical world and the manipulation of the fundamental forces that govern all interactions. He explains how Darkness is specifically tied to the mental world; consciousness, dreams and memory. He also says that the Light and Darkness form a paracausal union. A conjunction of intangible conscious realities.
We are told that both Strand and Stasis are tied to perception. They are metaphysical patterns stemming from the mind given form or shape by the one wielding it. Stasis for instance is about control over your environment whereas Strand is about relinquishing that control. Osiris elaborates:
Strand is the elemental manifestation of psychic connection. All minds are connected in a web of consciousness which we can now see and feel. To wield Strand is to pull on the hidden connecting threads and to use them to create, manipulate and unravel. Unlike Stasis, mastering Strand seems to require one to relinquish control, to embrace the connecting threads and perhaps flow with them.
It should be stated however that while Strand and Stasis are tied to perception, the effects that they manifest as are still physical, tangible and measurable. Take Stasis for instance. That metaphysical mental pattern underlying the need for control over one's environment manifests as highly-ordered negentropic time crystals. These crystals are still able to be analyzed under a microscope.
Similarly, Strand was manifested by us when we pulled the first thread so to speak. It took on a form of weaving; threads, ropes and strings; at least at a superficial level. But we are told the physical manifestation could have been very different had the Neomuni discovered it first, perhaps manifesting as cosmic water.

Paracausal Superposition

With that out of the way I want to discuss how Strand manifests physically and scientifically. We get some clues fairly early on. We are told that Strand is a byproduct of the Veil and Ghost analyses it concluding it is "like some sort of magnetic field all around Neomuna". Then Osiris ponders this new found power and says:
"A paracausal superposition. Like magnetic poles."
Now it could be easy to read this as talking about quantum superposition, a fundamental concept in quantum mechanics that describes the ability of a quantum system to be in multiple states simultaneously. However what Osiris is referring to is an entirely different concept altogether: magnetic superposition.
Magnetic superposition is a property of magnetic fields that describes how the magnetic fields from two or more sources can add together to create a combined magnetic field. This is similar to the way that forces can be added together in classical mechanics, where two forces can be combined to create a net force. In magnetic superposition, the magnetic field vectors add together and can either reinforce or cancel each other out, depending on their orientation and relative strengths.
So in simpler terms, it represents the superposition of a bunch of magnetic fields that all add up together. As we will see, magnetic fields are ubiquitous in nature. They are generated on an astronomical level in the planets and stars.
But they are also generated by all life.
While these "bio-magnetic" fields may be weak, the fact that this is a "paracausal superposition" suggests that the magnetic field lines are not limited to fields within our universe, but are perhaps a superposition of magnetic field lines from beyond.

Fluid Dynamics

While magnetism may seem like a relatively simple concept, it actually is responsible for a number of physical phenomena that can inform us on how Strand "flows". One of our biggest clues for this comes from the lore tab for Final Warning, a gun that apparently functions as an Atmospheric Spectrometer. We read:
The odd capabilities this "Final Warning" harbors have long been suspected by Dr. Sundaresh to be a byproduct of the Veil, replicating energy signatures we most often observe in fluid dynamics. With that in mind, I propose we begin testing the ability to engage that energy using both the Magnus and gyroscopic effects. We attempt to create a "paracausal skipping stone," if you will.
Fluid dynamics is a branch of physics that deals with the motion of fluids, including liquids and gases in the atmosphere. The Magnus effect and gyroscopic effects are both phenomena that arise from fluid dynamics, and are involved in the motion of objects through fluids.
Both of these forces also help explain skipping stones on water.
The take away here is that the Final Warning is taking advantage of these effects in order for its targeting capabilities to curve with the flow of Strand lines or increase direct line accuracy. But it hints at something more important, the fact that Strand flows like a fluid as well as it's relationship with the atmosphere.
It's quite possible that the Final Warning is an atmospheric magnetic spectrometer specifically used for studying Neptune's erratic magnetic field and its interaction with the atmosphere. Given Neptune's extreme erratic magnetic field and tendency to experience geomagnetic storms, it's not unlikely that a device like this would exist. It is also fitting thematically that just as we discovered an "ice-like" power on the icy world of Europa, we now discover a "magnetic-like" power on a gas giant with a highly erratic magnetic field.
If we take the fields of fluid dynamics and magnetism and combine them we actually get another field of science that can actually help us elucidate a lot about how Strand behaves and manifests.


Magnetohydrodynamics is a branch of physics that studies the behavior of electrically conducting fluids, such as plasmas, in the presence of magnetic fields.
It's useful for studying atmospheric effects caused by planetary magnetic fields and plasma in our Sun because these phenomena involve the interaction of magnetic fields with fluids.
It combines the principles of magnetism and fluid dynamics to understand phenomena such as the solar wind, the aurora borealis and the magnetic fields of planets.
Why is it of interest to us? As we will see, the fluid nature of Strand is quite comparable to the fluid dynamics of magnetic fields in electrically conducting fluids.
Magnetic field lines are often depicted as smooth, continuous curves as we can see in this concept art for Strand. But they can also form more complex structures in certain situations. For example, in plasmas (ionized gases), magnetic field lines can become tangled and form complex structures known as magnetic reconnection events.
In some contexts, magnetic field lines can also be thought of as "threads" that are woven through space. For example, in topology (the study of geometric shapes and their properties) and more specifically Magnetic topology, magnetic field lines can be described using mathematical techniques that involve the concept of "knots" and "links".
This is perhaps nowhere more evident than in our Sun.

Stellar Magnetism

While it may seem oddly tangential to talk about the Sun is relation to Strand it can actually give us a glimpse into how Strand behaves and flows. The Sun is a giant ball of plasma, and as such, magnetohydrodynamics plays a crucial role in understanding the physics of the Sun.
The Sun's magnetic field is generated by the motion of plasma within the Sun's interior. The magnetic field is not uniform and varies in strength and direction, forming sunspots, coronal loops, and other magnetic structures on the surface of the Sun.
Sunspots, which are cooler areas on the Sun's surface, produce very intense magnetic fields! The intensity causes the magnetic field lines to be twisted so much that they become tangled and frozen in the plasma, resulting in explosive releases of energy known as solar flares and coronal mass ejections that can affect Earth's atmosphere and technology.
Natural systems like the Sun's corona or even the Earth's magnetosphere can produce some very interesting phenomena that I believe are observed in Strand.
We can start to see the how Strand imitates the way magnetic field lines behave in large astronomical bodies, but what about it's relationship to consciousness and the so-called "web of life"?


Magnetism has played a vital role in various natural phenomena, including the seeding of the first stars, the structure of our galaxy. and plays a critical role in the behavior of charged particles in space.
Moreover it is important for life. Magnetism is known to have produced Magnetoreception in some organisms, such as migratory birds, which use the Earth's magnetic field to navigate. Life also produces a weak bio-magnetic field due to the presence of charged particles in living organisms, such as ions and electrically charged molecules. This bio-magnetic field is believed to play a role in various biological processes, including cell communication and regulation.
The biomagnetic field affects cell communication by influencing the movement of charged particles across cell membranes. Cell membranes are selectively permeable, meaning that they allow certain substances to pass through while blocking others. The movement of charged particles across cell membranes is critical for many cellular processes, including nerve signaling and muscle contraction.


The brain also produces a magnetic field, which is known as the "neuromagnetic field". This field is produced by the electrical activity of neurons in the brain, which generates tiny magnetic fields that can be measured outside the head using specialized equipment, such as Magnetoencephalography.
This field is thought to be involved in the communication between different regions of the brain and in the coordination of neural activity. The brains magnetic field can also be used to study the neural correlates of various cognitive processes, such as perception, attention, and memory.
Some scientists have proposed that the magnetic resonance of the brain may even play a role in the emergence of subjective experience by facilitating the integration of information across different regions of the brain. This research can be seen in this article "Solving the “Hard Problem”: Consciousness as an Intrinsic Property of Magnetic Fields".
Our consciousness is the state of being aware of things around us and within ourselves. Biological consciousness is our ability as living beings to be aware of and respond to different types of experiences, like sensory information (sight, sound, touch, etc.), emotions, and thoughts.
When we are focused on something in particular, like a physical sensation or a task we're trying to complete, certain parts of our brain become more active and produce electrical signals. This activity creates magnetic fields in the same area (which can be picked up by Magnetic resonance imaging). These magnetic fields can help the brain pay attention to the sensations or thoughts that are most important at that moment.
It's likely that our conscious experiences and our current state of consciousness are related to this localized electrical and chemical activity in our brains. The magnetic information created by this activity can help different parts of the brain communicate with each other and respond quickly to new information, like threats or opportunities.
In short, our consciousness is influenced by the electrical signals in our brains, and these signals also create magnetic fields that can help our brains respond to the world around us.

Noetic Effects

We even get some lore in the Hidden Dossier that elaborates on the connection between magnetism and qualia. The lore talks about the explanatory gap.
The explanatory gap is the difference between what they learn inside the room and what they see outside. The gap between knowing everything about color and actually seeing a color. In this gap lives the idea of “qualia,” the first-person experiences of the mind. You cannot describe or communicate qualia; you can only have them.
It then explains how this was solved:
We solved the explanatory gap. Golden Age philosophers correctly identified the difference between the education of color and the experience of color. Experience occurs in the brain. Qualia, no matter how ineffable, are the result of physical processes. If the Gray Room Dweller had never experienced Red, it was because the neural correlates of the qualia Red had never been activated. Give the Gray Room Dweller a dose of hallucinogens, or an EMP to the right part of the brain, and they could experience all the colors imaginable without ever leaving their black-and-white room.
This relationship of magnetism to consciousness and Darkness is further gleaned from the experience with the K1 anomaly.
A black sphere—nothing could be simpler—and yet it is awesome, unspeakably complex, compactly infinite, full of as many things as it could possibly contain. We cannot spend long near it. Its electromagnetic flux is too subtle to burn through the fieldweave in our suits or cause any real harm, but we can't assume it'll stay that way. If the field spikes, it could force our nerves to fire, even drive us into seizure. High-Tesla magnetic fields do strange things to the mind.
In fact the noetic fields caused by the artifact were so bad that it's stated crew had to wear "Enhanced fieldweave for neural electromagnetic insulation".


Discover hidden connections. Fashion them into whatever you desire.
So in conclusion we can see a clear comparison between how Strand manifests physically with magnetic phenomena at both the astronomical and biological level. Connection, tangles, and flux ropes are phenomena of magnetism we can observe in our Sun and Earth's magnetosphere. This visualization continues with Strand.
But although it is like a magnetic field, it is clearly so much more.
It is a Paracausal Superposition of magnetic field lines produced by all life, in our universe and beyond. While the biomagnetic fields that life produces are weak, a paracausal superposition could explain why the Guardians are able to perceive these hidden connections and manipulate the fabric of reality at both the physical and the mental level.
Since the field is ubiquitous and connected to not only biological processes, but neurological processes as well - it explains how the Guardian can act a conduit and move with the flow of these paracausal magnetic field lines, twisting them and bending them according to their minds will.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
TL;DR: Strand is a paracausal superposition and is connected to the superposition of magnetic field lines throughout our universe and beyond. The fluid nature of Strand is comparable to the fluid dynamics of intense magnetic fields in a star's plasma or a planet's magnetosphere. The entanglement and contortion of strong magnetic fields can give rise to intricate structures like magnetic flux ropes and magnetic tangles. Magnetism also plays a crucial role in biological and neurological processes, with evidence suggesting that the brain's magnetic field may even give rise to subjective experience. Together, these factors contribute to our understanding of how Strand manifests.
submitted by LettuceDifferent5104 to DestinyLore [link] [comments]

2023.03.07 10:52 snoosnoosewsew That’s… not quite what I was going for.

That’s… not quite what I was going for. submitted by snoosnoosewsew to ProgrammerHumor [link] [comments]

2023.02.26 23:15 Own-Worldliness2452 someone plsss help 🥲 (this is with mods disabled) if i load with mods, i cant use any explosives so cant complete a mission

someone plsss help 🥲 (this is with mods disabled) if i load with mods, i cant use any explosives so cant complete a mission submitted by Own-Worldliness2452 to arma [link] [comments]

2023.02.26 20:06 ihaveneverexisted Why Israel is a settler colonial state.

Why Israel is a settler colonial state.

Process of Zionist colonialism.
Lot of people on both sides of the conversation are, honestly understandably, confused about why Israel is a settler colonial state and what that means.
This misunderstanding, I think, is due in large part to the conflation between settler colonialism and classical "exploitational"/"metropole" colonialism that are often connoted by the term colonialism. In these examples the primary intention is to monetarily exploit the native peoples to benefit a foreign colonial metropole. This is the most common form of colonialism(I think) and is what the British empire pursued in India and around the globe.
Settler colonialism, however, is a distinct separate phenomena that is less interested in profiting off of indigenous peoples but is instead more characterised by It's "logic of annihilation" and eventual replacement of preceding peoples. This is famously what occurred in all the America's, Australia and South Africa. This is also what happened in Liberia, the French colonisation of Algeria and British colonisation of Kenya amongst others.
With this in mind, what are the common definitions, tropes, and stages amongst these movements.
Lorenzo Veracini(One of the foremost experts on settler colonialism) defines settler colonialism as the following "Settler colonialism is a specific mode of domination where a community of exogenous settlers permanently displace to a new locale, eliminate or displace indigenous populations and sovereignties, and constitute an autonomous political body. The outcome of settler colonialism is a sociopolitical body that reproduces in the place of another. As a specific mode of domination, it is especially concerned with space. "1 In simpler terms "Settler colonialism is a distinct type of colonialism that functions through the replacement of indigenous populations with an invasive settler society that, over time, develops a distinctive identity and sovereignty. Settler colonial states include Canada, the United States, Australia, and South Africa." 2
Settler colonialism is also thought to generally follow a set of "stages" which follow from the natural consequences of settler colonialism's purpose. As Jeff Halper( Jewish Israeli anthropologist) writes "Settler projects differ in their historical details. They never progress smoothly and inexorably along a linear path, and often end up far from where the settlers intended. Settler projects are also subject to resistance, which alter their forms and progression. Nonetheless, five stages of settler progression may be discerned from the “inner logic” and structure of settler projects "
(a) Impetus. For whatever reason, voluntary or not, settlers and their colonial sponsors (the metropole) set their sights on a foreign land. Often they fantasize it as barren, undeveloped, in need of their civilizing mission or “belonging” to them by Divine or historical right. They then construct stories of entitlement, narratives invented to legitimize their right to seize the land.
(b) Settlement Invasion. The arrival of settlers intent on conquering the country and displacing the Indigenous population constitutes an invasion, even if it takes place over time. “Invasion” begins by acquiring land. Since the settlers aim not only to conquer a country but to make it permanently their own, invasion requires means of maintaining control. It creates a regime to sustain settler dominance while suppressing the Indigenous population.
(c) Foundational Violence. The process of establishing a settler society is necessarily a violent one. It must be imposed by force because the Native population can never accept their own elimination. The foundational stages of the settler project resemble military campaigns to displace and pacify the local population. And since Indigenous resistance becomes more organized as the scale and intent of the invasion becomes clear, “security” becomes a central preoccupation of the settlers. Since the settlers cannot acknowledge the national claims of the Indigenous lest they legitimize them, they criminalize all resistance. Portraying Native resistance as “terrorism” is a quintessential colonial practice. Casting the Indigenous as “terrorists” also disconnects the Native peoples from the land, as if their only aim as “bad people” is to attack an innocent settler community that only wants to cultivate “its” land.
(d) Establishment of a Dominance Management Regime. Until it actually takes over a country and normalizes its control, the settler enterprise must rely on a Dominance Management Regime to sustain and expand its control. This Regime has four functions. It deploys militias, military and police forces to take control of the land. It acts to expel, suppress and manage the Indigenous population. It provides ongoing security necessary to ensure settler dominance. And it disseminates the settlers’ narrative in order to legitimize their rule.
(e) The “Triumph” of the Settler Regime. Over time, as the Native population is driven out, killed, marginalized and pacified, a “normal” state and society emerge, one which obviously “belongs” to the settlers as natives. The Indigenous population disappears from both the national narrative and the landscape, except as folklore. The settlers’ claims of entitlement are now confirmed and become “historical fact.” Settler colonialism has achieved its ultimate goal: replacing the former society.
I'm sure many already see the similarities between these descriptions and the Zionist project.
a) Zionism grew in the late 19th century amongst European Jews at least partly influenced by the rise of neighbouring nationalisms, as well as of course biblical narratives. Prior to this, Jewish "return" to Palestine was an individual spiritual religious journey,. And the idea of creating a Jewish ethno-nationalist state was seen by many as heretical or counterproductive ever since the destruction of the second temple. Palestine to these earliest Zionist's was a vague ideal rather than the geographical reality, it was a supposed barren uncultivated wasteland. Arabs in Palestine were either entirely ignored, had their entire existence denied, or were to be expelled from their homes by various means in order to ensure a Jewish majority. Hence the "land without a people, for a people without a land" trope. The native Arabs were nothing more than faint temporary background characters in the Jewish narrative around their homeland. Herzl at the time wrote of denying all Arabs their right to work in order to "spirit the penniless population" away.
Nevertheless a broad plan for mass settlement, some degree of Jewish sovereignty and Arab population expulsion/control was set into motion. In the words of Jabotinsky "converting “Palestine” from an Arab country into a country with a Jewish majority ", "the transformation of “Palestine” into the “Land of Israel.”" Arab, 90% Muslim, Palestine(as it had been called for millennia by jews and non-jews) was to become Jewish Israel with no regard whatso-ever for the national rights of the people, society and organisation's that existed at the time and were to be replaced in favour of the new Jewish supremacist society and polity.
b) Settlement and Jewish colonies soon followed. Often various organisations, such as the Jewish colonial trust, were set up in order to finance and fundraise for the purchase of land from absentee owners and Arabs in the area. This migration was under the explicit intention of severing the purchased lands away from any Arab sovereignty. This is invasive. legal ownership does not give individuals political or sovereignty rights, and pursuing this political separation and sovereignty is an invasion. This pattern of initial purchase/ownership and treaty with the natives is very common. Treaties and land purchases were present between early European colonists and the native Americans, Aboriginals and native Liberians. Prior to 1948 Jews made up approximately 33% of the mandate and owned 7% of the land. Not all of the Jewish settlers arrived as such, in fact many were fleeing persecution. However, once they joined the Zionist project and undertook the privileges, ideals and motives they too became settler colonists. Similar to how many European settlers arriving at the America's were fleeing religious persecution and war.
Ahad ha-am(Jewish Zionist*)* wrote of the earliest settlers in 1891 "[The Jewish settlers] treat the Arabs with hostility and cruelty, trespass unjustly, beat them shamelessly for no sufficient reason, and even take pride in doing so. The Jews were slaves in the land of their Exile, and suddenly they found themselves with unlimited freedom, wild freedom that only exists in a land like Turkey. This sudden change has produced in their hearts an inclination towards repressive tyranny, as always happens when slave rules." 'Ahad Ha'Am also warned: "We are used to thinking of the Arabs as primitive men of the desert, as a donkey-like nation that neither sees nor understands what is going around it. But this is a great error. The Arab, like all sons of Sham, has sharp and crafty mind . . . Should time come when life of our people in Palestine imposes to a smaller or greater extent on the natives, they will not easily step aside."
The Palestinians were not seen as equal claimants to their homeland, deserving of the independence and sovereignty they were asking for, but rather nuisances and an issue needing to be dealt with. The reality of Palestinian existence and resistance to colonialism was also now evident. Palestinians will not "step aside" or be "spirited away". By 1939 the Zionists had agreed on the solution to the "Arab Problem"; ethnic cleansing. As Zionist historian Benny Morris writes,
"The commission further recommended that the bulk of the three hundred thousand Arabs who lived in the territory earmarked for Jewish sovereignty should be transferred, voluntarily or under compulsion, to the Arab part of Palestine or out of the country altogether. The commission “balanced” this by recommending that the 1,250 Jews living in areas earmarked for Arab sovereignty be moved to the Jewish area-deeming the proposed transaction “an ex- change of population.”"
In their testimony before the commission, the Zionist mainstream representatives had laid claim to the whole of the Land of Israel—the traditional Zionist platform. But in private conversations, Weizmann and others indicated a readiness for compromise based on partition as well as, quite probably, suggesting the “transfer” solution to the demographic problem posed by the prospective large Arab minority in the Jewish area. Zionism's leaders, from Herzl through Menahem Ussishkin and Arthur Ruppin, had periodically proposed in private letters and diaries—transfer as the requisite solution to the "Arab problem.” But transfer had never been adopted by the movement or any of the main Zionist parties (including the right-wing Revisionists) as part of a platform or official policy. Once the Peel Commission had given the idea its imprimatur, however, the floodgates were opened. Ben-Gurion, Weizmann, Shertok, and others—a virtual consensus-went on record in support of transfer at meetings of the JAE at the Twentieth Zionist Congress (in August 1937, in Zurich) and in other forums!"
Transfer, including under compulsion(otherwise known as ethnic cleansing), was to be the primary way to deal with the indigenous populations. This all contributed to Zionism's "logic of annihilation", a necessary trope of settler colonial states which involves the "annihilation" of prior societies, cultures and nationality if not the physical genocide of the people in the nation.
As historian Patrick Wolfe (The man accredited with establishing the study of settler colonialism in the 20th century) explains "The logic of elimination not only refers to the summary liquidation of Indigenous people, though it includes that... it strives for the dissolution of native societies. Positively, it erects a new colonial society on the expropriated land base—as I put it, settler colonizers come to stay: invasion is a structure not an event... Settler colonialism destroys to replace. As Theodor Herzl, founding father of Zionism, observed in his allegorical manifesto/novel, “If I wish to substitute a new building for an old one, I must demolish before I construct.” In a kind of realization that took place half a century later, one-time deputy-mayor of West Jerusalem Meron Benvenisti recalled, “As a member of a pioneering youth movement, I myself ‘made the desert bloom’ by uprooting the ancient olive trees of al-Bassa to clear the ground for a banana grove, as required by the ‘planned farming’ principles of my kibbutz, Rosh Haniqra.” Renaming is central to the cadastral effacement/replacement of the Palestinian Arab presence that Benvenisti poignantly recounts...The positive force that animated the Jewish nation and its individual new-Jewish subjects issued from the negative process of excluding Palestine's Indigenous owners." 3

c) The most obvious instance of Zionist foundational violence was of course the "Nakba", or "catastrophe" in Arabic. We can see how the prior attitudes and "logic of elimination" towards the Palestinians population led to large-scale violence during the annexation of half of Palestine. 1) Attacks against Palestinian citizens began months before any foreign Arab invasion, these included numerous massacres and war crimes. 2) Many villages were attacked and ethnically cleansed regardless of their military involvement, Deir Yassen for example had signed a non-belligerence treaty and had helped the Zionists with military information. 3) Ben-Gurion let his officers understand that it was preferable for as few Arabs as possible to remain in the new country, 4) Ben Gurion and/or Yitzhak Rabin ordered the mass ethnic cleansing and death march of Lydd and Ramle, approximately 70,000 people were expelled. Constituting 10% of the total refugee population, the expulsion here mirrored the native American "trail of tears". 5) More than 400 villages were intentionally destroyed/demolished, 700,000 Palestinians were expelled/fled whilst many more were internally displaced. These Palestinians were never allowed to return, those who tried were killed.
Under the settler colonial paradigm this is clearly necessary and justified, remaining or returning Palestinians are an inherent affront to the settler colonists who need to annihilate their national presence in order to "triumph" and maintain their narrative claim. Palestinians identifying as Palestine and fighting for national self-determination and sovereignty as Palestinians in their own homes endangers the exclusionary Zionist project.
d) The systematic and legal dis-enfranchisement of Palestinians was clear from the beginning. Palestinians for their first 18 years under Israeli control, lived under military occupation unlike their Jewish neighbours. They were severely restricted into dozens of separate enclaves. Palestinians who were expelled were not given their legal right to return, even in cases where they did not leave the borders of the state of Israel.
Palestinian land was quickly confiscated, either by designating public and communal lands as "state land", or through absentee ownership laws (which were in practice only applied to Palestinians), or through supposed lack of development and cultivation of their land (often because Palestinians were physically banned from entering their lands), or through military orders of expulsion of Palestinians in the Naqab and Galillea and other means. This land was seized by the government and pseudo-legal organisations such as the JNF(Jewish National Fund). Together these now control 93% of Israel's land, land which is legally reserved solely and explicitly for use by Jews. Of the 370 Jewish localities built by Israel between 1949 and 1953, 350 were on stolen Palestinian land. As Patrick Wolfe details “Whatever settlers may say – and they generally have a lot to say – the primary motive for elimination [of the natives] is not race (or religion, ethnicity, grade of civilization, etc.) but access to territory. Territoriality is settler colonialism’s specific, irreducible element.”
During this period (and again today) Palestinians were banned from flying their national flags(or even the pan-arab colours of the flag), Palestinians were also banned from writing "subversive" literature. It is true that eventually the Palestinians who survived ethnic cleansing were given citizenship. This is fairly common amongst settler colonies even in their earliest years. As Patrick wolfe notes "Andrew Jackson was taken by surprise when “thousands of Choctaws decided to take advantage of the allotment provisions [in the treaty LeFlore had signed] and become homesteaders and American citizens in Mississippi.” The reason that the remaining Choctaw were acceptable had nothing to do with their being Choctaw. On the contrary, it had to do with their not (or, at least, no longer) being Choctaw. They had become “homesteaders and American citizens.” In a word, they had become individuals.". Palestinians were recognised only as they were non-descript "Arab-Israeli's", still not equal citizens and disavowed their Palestinian nationality and claims. Palestinian society, identity, land, villages and community continued to be subject to the "logic of annihilation". 4 5 6
e) Israel has only partially triumphed. In large part due to Palestinian resistance and international outcry. Israel has still not "normalised" their control and settlements in the West Bank. Neither has Israel been able to "annihilate" the Palestinian nationality. This is not for a lack of trying. Similar to many other cases of settler colonialism where the natives were a large, more concerted connected group(such as the colonisation of Algeria, South Africa and Kenya) the natives and settlers are at an impasse where neither can currently accommodate or get rid of the other.
We can see then how Israel fits the definition of settler colonialism while exhibiting many of the same tropes, intentions and consequences. Since the 1970's Israel has been understood in this way by the foremost writers on colonialism. Patrick Wolfe(The man accredited with establishing the study of settler colonialism), Lorenzo Veracini(editor in chief of settler colonial studies), Jeff Halper, Edward Said(founder of post-colonial studies), Ilan Pappe, Rashid Khalidi amongst many others have come to similar conclusions. This isn't a fallacious appeal to authority, the same way it isn't fallacious to argue that immunologist's are more likely to be right about the vaccine than you or I. In fact, if anyone has the right to decide what is settler colonialism it's the people who coined and first explained settler colonialism.
If Israel is not settler colonialism their must be a material real difference to the natives compared to other settler colonial examples. Their have been many different peoples, motives justifications and places that have caused and been affected by settler colonialism. Israel does not exhibit anything which is materially different which diverges greatly from other settler colonial regimes, at least not with respect to its affects on the natives. In order to disqualify Israel, a difference must, 1) not be exhibited by any other settler colonial regime 2) Create a drastically different experience for the natives than other settler colonial examples. If, to the natives that it affects, Israel is indistinguishable from settler colonialism then why should it warrant a separate classification?
For example, many claim that Israel cannot be a settler colonial state since it is led by Jews and Jews are themselves indigenous to Palestine. This is an interesting claim Imo because it cuts to the heart of what exactly it means to be "indigenous".
The basic fact is, that under the general connotations of indigeneity, Jews are not indigenous. For various reasons.
  1. Jews are the dominant society in Palestine, an inherent part of being indigenous is a lack of self-determination and control due to continuing colonisation. It describes a relationship to colonialism. This explains why almost everyone isn't indigenous. Modern day Indians, Pakistani's, Nigerians, Kenyans, Algerians amongst many many others, even the British with the Romans have been invaded and colonised at some point in time. These people are not understood as indigenous since those repressive power structures are for the most part reduced. Similar case for Jews in Palestine today. If jews are indigenous, then why aren't all those earlier states and almost every post-colonial society also indigenous?
  2. Indigeneity isn't decided solely by biological descendancy, the relationship a diasporic Jew has with Palestine is not one of indigeneity. Arab muslims have a strong relationship with Mekka, and many trace lineage to the prophet and Arabs of Arabia, and practice daily remembrance and pilgrimage to Mekka yet it isn't an indigenous relationship. .As Lorenzo Veracini explains "These are fraught claims, and all settlers claim to be ‘indigenous’. Haaretz journalist Bradley Burston recently faced this issue and rhetorically asked: ‘if Jews are not indigenous here [i.e., Israel], does that mean that Jews can never be indigenous anywhere? Pace Burston, and rhetoric aside, this question has a straight answer. Settler colonial studies can illustrate this point: irrespective of whether specific populations in discrete historical eras are biologically linked (and they may not be), the very notion of a ‘Promised Land’ makes it so. People that are promised land somewhere else constitute by definition a sociopolitical collective that is organised prior to its arrival, as good a definition of being exogenous as any. One cannot celebrate the movement to the land and understand oneself as having always been there. This is not about being anti-Semitic or unreasonable. This is about following the logic that is inherent to the specific stories that define a particular settler sociopolitical collective (even in its non-religious versions Zionism, like all settler colonialisms, has a Promised Land and sees itself re-enacting a Biblical story). Zionists are not indigenous; they entertain an historical, that is, a non-ontological relationship to the land. It is a meaningful relationship, but is not that of an indigenous collective."
  3. Jews are similar to other diasporic communities, African diaspora, Gypsy(Romani and Sinti), Syrian diaspora amongst others. These other examples are not generally regarded as indigenous.
  4. Jewish communities, with all their different languages cultures traditions and levels pf religiosity, are not necessarily a single nation in the sense that indigenous nations and communities are. That's not to say that this nationalism(which arose in congruence with Zionism) is invalid, I as a non-Jew have no say. However, the broad sense of the term Jewish means that it doesn't necessarily dictate any one relationship with the land of Palestine. Every Native American Nation share a very set relation to their homeland. Take eastern European secular Jews in the 19th century for example. A man like Herzl(who spoke German), and his early contemporaries, would have had very little in common with a Beta Israel community member(who speaks Amharic), and definitely very different relation to Palestine compared to a Mizrahi Jew(who can speak the language of land and has visited/lives their) just as an example. Each community has it's own experience and to decide that all are equally indigenous (and more indigenous than the Palestinians) seems absurd to me. When it comes to claims to indigeneity you cannot treat every Jewish community alike.
  5. So, what is it exactly that Jews mean when they insist on their indigeneity. The notion is, that the first Jews and "Jewishness" started in Palestine approximately 2000 years ago. As I explained this does not constitute indigeneity. However, it is important to show that even this does not disqualify Israel from being a settler-colonial project. To put it simply, It doesn't matter. Every coloniser creates a narrative to justify their actions, doesn't make the outcome any different. You could imagine a settler saying "how can I be a coloniser? God gave me the right to settle here, I'm simply manifesting my destiny". Or "how can I be a coloniser? I, as the member of the higher race, have a right to settle here." Or "How can I be a coloniser? I have worked hard to develop and built this land from nothing. I made the desert bloom." You can see why all of these are irrelevant technicalities and justifications. The outcome is identical in all of these cases. The erasure of the prior communities, nations, polity and society for their replacement in a way which dis-enfranchised the natives and privileged the settler. Similar case with supposed Jewish origin in Palestine. Zionist's here are saying "How can we be colonisers? I believe my ancestors, my language and some of my traditions/religion started here 2000 years ago." Every settler society has seen itself as an inherent part of the land, rather than the foreign invaders they are. It's an inherent part of settler colonisation.
Another supposed distinction is that Palestinians themselves are the colonisers. This derives from the fact that Palestinians have adopted Islam and Arabic as their native tongue and are at least partially descended from earlier Arab invaders. This, I think, is very very misguided.
  1. First of all Palestinians are descended in large part from earlier Canaanite and neolithic populations, and are shown to have genetic similarities with Jewish groups.6 7 8
2)Secondly, both Arabic and Arabs are not foreign to the region. The Nabataean's, Ghasanids and others were Arab groups in the Levant and Palestine centuries before violent Muslim conquest and imperialism. Similarly Islam's main theological, beliefs and traditions began in Palestine. The Idea of God, figures, stories, monotheism, reverence of Jerusalem, Language, morality etc of Islam all began in Palestine. And the Palestinians and Muslims are proud of this, identifying with the earliest Abrahamic stories and Biblical figures( Calling them Muslim isn't erasing their Jewish ethnicity or beliefs but signifying that they "submitted to god", the definition of Islam in Arabic). Their is no Islam without Christianity and Judaism. Islam and Arab culture are not foreign to Palestine the same way they aren't foreign to Yemen, Lebanon, Jordan, Syria etc. Palestine prior to the arrival of Zionist settler colonisers was just as Arab as the rest of the Levant.
3)Most importantly however this misses the point of what a coloniser is. You cannot be a coloniser without colonising someone. And unless you are going to claim that Jews in Palestine today are under an oppressive regime at the hands of the Arabs, an utterly absurd claim, this just isn't true.
Related to the last 2 points, Zionist's claim that Israel is only restoring a prior society and culture that was unjustly removed by the Arab imperial rulers, therefore it is actually de-colonising. This is just factually untrue, nor would it be a positive thing if it were true.
  1. As I showed, Palestinians are not colonisers and Jews are not indigenous to Palestine. Nevertheless De-colonisation is not about reversing power structures and dominating backwards. It is about eliminating the power structures and creating an equal society.
  2. Practically every aspect of the society imposed on Palestine and the Palestinians was not representative of society prior to Islamic conquest. Nor was this the intention. As Ben Gurion wrote “Although our origin is in the East, and we are returning to the East, we bring with us European civilization and we would not want to sever our connections and those of the country with the civilization of Europe …. We do not see a better representative of western civilization than England [Zionism’s chief metropole at the time].” For example native Jews spoke Aramaic, not Hebrew, prior to the destruction of the 3rd temple. The broad very varied religion, centred around temple worship and animal sacrifice is all but gone. Israel is part of Euro-vision, and the Europa cup and, just like other settler colonial states, sees itself as "part of the west" as opposed to their "barbaric, uncivilised" middle-eastern neighbours. Edward Said talks about this framing of Israel and it is an essential part of Israel's national identity. Of course their are still genuine similarities. Just as there are still US states, rivers and places named after there indigenous origins. But these do not change the reality of what took place and therefore should not justify a separate classification. Self-identified "Afrikaners", for example, spoke "Afrikaans" and often attempted to supplant themselves as also being "indigenous".
The example of Liberian colonisation is a great parallel to Israeli colonialism. It also consisted of people who justified their actions and colonialism in expliitly "native" terms. Liberian colonies were created to facilitate the return of African American freed-men to the West Coast of Africa where it is thought they originated. Of course the fact of African American disenfranchisement and persecution, their "return" to Africa bear many similairities to the colonisation of Palestine. Their too, the natives resisted the expansion of the colony. This therefore shows that "Africans can colonise Africa" just as "Jews can colonise Judea".8 9 10
Lastly. This was not controversial amongst the earliest Zionists. Before the age of de-colonisation and colonisation becoming a negative word with the horrific connotations that it deserved, it was common to call Zionism for what it is; colonialism. As Professor John Collins writes "the architects of Zionism were conscious and often unapologetic about their status as colonizers whose right to the land superseded that of Palestine’s Arab inhabitants" Herzl, Jabotinsky Ben Gurion and others have been clear in their assessment, the fist Zionist bank was called the "Jewish colonial trust". Of course the first excuse is that these were drastically different contexts and colonialism meant something different at the time. Of course the context in which they were said was their intended colonisation of Palestine. Nevertheless the intended connotations are undeniably other settler colonial states. Jabotinsky(Founder of the Likud party, the current government of Israel) states the following.
[the moderate Zionists] realised long ago that it is utterly impossible to obtain the voluntary consent of the Palestine Arabs for converting “Palestine” from an Arab country into a country with a Jewish majority…. My readers have a general idea of the history of colonisation in other countries. I suggest that they consider all the precedents with which they are acquainted, and see whether there is one solitary instance of any colonisation being carried on with the consent of the native population. There is no such precedent. The native populations, civilised or uncivilised, have always stubbornly resisted the colonists, irrespective of whether they were civilised or savage
Every native population, civilised or not, regards its lands as its national home, of which it is the sole master, and it wants to retain that mastery always; it will refuse to admit not only new masters but, even new partners or collaborators. This is equally true of the Arabs. We may tell them whatever we like about the innocence of our aims, watering them down and sweetening them with honeyed words to make them palatable, but they know what we want, as well as we know what they do not want. They feel at least the same instinctive jealous love of Palestine, as the old Aztecs felt for ancient Mexico, and the Sioux for their rolling Prairies…. Every native population in the world resists colonists as long as it has the slightest hope of being able to rid itself of the danger of being colonised. That is what the Arabs in Palestine are doing, and what they will persist in doing as long as there remains a solitary spark of hope that they will be able to prevent the transformation of “Palestine” into the “Land of Israel.”
The context then is clear, that of violent forceful colonisation similar to that of Mexico, or the Native American Sioux lands. Herzl too
“You are being invited to help make history,” Herzl wrote to Rhodes(prolific colonial officer who colonised and subjugated parts of South Africa). “[I]t doesn’t involve Africa, but a piece of Asia Minor; not Englishmen but Jews… How, then, do I happen to turn to you since this is an out-of-the-way matter for you? How indeed? Because it is something colonial… [Y]ou, Mr. Rhodes, are a visionary politician or a practical visionary… I want you to.. put the stamp of your authority on the Zionist plan and to make the following declaration to a few people who swear by you: I, Rhodes have examined this plan and found it correct and practicable. It is a plan full of culture, excellent for the group of people for whom it is directly designed, and quite good for England, for Greater Britain…."
I have seen two other main points in contention with this.
  1. That these same figures also acknowledged it as a return to Palestine and therefore they did not mean colonialism in the traditional sense we see it as now. Of course my whole post was to show that no matter the justification and reasoning it is still colonialism comparable to colonisation of the America's and South Africa. Something that Herzl and Jabotinsky here would seem to agree with.
  2. That this was intentionally misleading in order to garner support amongst the British colonists. I have not seen any evidence of this idea, that is, proof that Herzl here was intentionally lying. This also doesn't explain Jabotinsky's statement intended clearly for internal use amongst Jews and Zionist's. I also want to point out the opposing nature of these "rebuttals". If the context behind the statement isn't abundantly clear than surely the Zionist organisation intended something different to our understanding of colonialism. When the intended context is obvious then the Zionist's were simply trying to rally support amongst other colonist's and didn't actually mean what they knew they were connoting. So supposedly either way, no matter the context, Zionist's can somehow never mean exactly what they were saying when it comes to colonisation.
Thankyou to anyone who managed to read through all that.
TL;DR. Israel fits the definition of the type of colonialism that is settler colonialism; a specific mode of domination where a community of exogenous settlers permanently displace to a new locale, eliminate or displace indigenous populations and sovereignties, and constitute an autonomous political body. The outcome of settler colonialism is a socio-political body that reproduces in the place of another.
Israel also exhibits many of the same tropes, narratives and stages of settler colonial projects. Proposed indigeneity and other immaterial(I.e they don't change the outcome of the colonisation on the native peoples) justifications/causes do not change this reality. The foremost experts on colonialism and even the founders of Zionism, and people who made Israel what it is today, agree.
Any proposed distinction important enough to disqualify Israel from settler colonialism despite fitting the letter and intention(since the people who created the term and definitions agree with it's use here) of the definition, must be one which is 1) Unique to Israel 2) Have made a material difference in the way it affects the indigenous Palestinians living in Israel. If, to the natives that it affects, Israel is indistinguishable from settler colonialism then why should it warrant a separate classification?
That is not to say that Jews don't have a real valid connection to the holy land or that they should not be allowed to live in Palestine. Simply that when they engage in settler colonialism, they are engaging in settler colonialism. It's like when many far-right Israelis claim that the "Judea and Samaria" cannot be occupied since "Jews cannot occupy Judea".
Jewish organisations can and do occupy, and can and do colonise, Judea and the rest of Palestine, or "the land of Israel". Most often denying so, I think, is simply due to a knee-jerk reaction to the "negative" connotations and consequences of the term rather than an assessment of the facts on the ground.
submitted by ihaveneverexisted to IsraelPalestine [link] [comments]

2023.02.22 05:33 jhpratt2 $nwbo r/nwbo u/jhpratt2 kusterer
Re: None
Tuesday, February 21, 2023 3:05:53 PM
Post# of 569797 GoThoughts on the latest $NWBO DCVax manuscript preprint (de Godoy et al) Due diligence I read today a preprint of a manuscript by de Godoy et al that was submitted on February 15, 2023 to the Journal of Neuro-Oncology entitled “Assessment of Treatment Response to Dendritic Cell Vaccine in Patients with Glioblastoma using a Multiparametric MRI-Based Prediction Model”. Remarkably and signifying the importance and urgency of this study to the neuro-oncology community, by February 18, an editor had already been identified, reviewers requested and accepted. The preprint can be found at this link:
My thoughts are below.
This paper is significant because the neuro-oncology community has had a difficult time identifying with reliability using non-invasive methods whether someone is truly progressing (TP) or pseudoprogressing (PSP), i.e., responding to the immunotherapy treatment but looking like they are progressing on MRI. This has been a major hindrance for glioblastoma clinical trials and immunotherapy clinical trials in general. And now there is a way to do so.
It reliably shows that one can, using multiparametric MRI distinguish between the two, and does so using the gold standard of histopathology. This is a very important step in reliably monitoring of large numbers of patients receiving DCVax in the future and making decisions on their treatment plan.
This is critical data not just for the FDA and other regulatory agencies to feel even more confident in the utility of DCVax, because they can see correlation between DCVax treatment, pseudoprogression via MRI and the histology of dead and dying tumors. The histology figure in Figure 1B-F is incredibly striking, showing how DCVax has resulted in death of the whole tumor. Note that the numbering of the panels in Figure 1 is rather unconventional, and I would suggest revision of the numbering system to the authors, if they happened to ever read this.
The correlation between MGMT methylation, Ki67, overall survival, and other factors is striking and interesting. It lends further confidence to the conclusions of the JAMA Oncology paper.
The Kaplan-Meier (survival) curves in Figure 2 are a thing of beauty. Amazing stuff. And it’s quite logical that survival is better if Ki67 levels are lower (remember that it's a proliferation marker).
It also points to a published animal model study of DCVax that I was unaware of (reference 6), which I will look at in my spare time.
I love this sentence: "The improvement in survival in MGMT methylated patients treated with DCVax-L could be due to synergies with TMZ chemotherapy [9]." because it suggests that DCVax even synergizes with chemotherapy...
Overall, this study makes the case that one can reliably identify pseudoprogression using a more advanced MRI technique and shows beautiful and convincing correlations between things that matter to neuroradiologists and neuropathologists, who not only play important roles in regulatory agencies and ADCOMs but also play countless critical roles including in diagnosis, determination of progression or prognosis, treatment decisions, tumor boards, etc.
I'm interested in reading your thoughts on the study in the comments below.
KryptyPop · 21 hr. ago Keep up the great DD Bio!!!!!! We longs are thankful to you and the many that add to all the DD on reddit, twitter and even a few of n Ihub. GLTA
We are getting so close!
Thank you Bio!!! The train is leaving the station????
20 hr. ago Thanks for another gem Bio!!
HisDanishDudeness · 12 hr. ago 60% of the times, it works ... EVERYTIME
Who would've known, that this timeless quote from Anchorman, would one day equal the efficacy of DCVax-L in combo with checkpoint inhibitors?
PDXbeerdo · 19 hr. ago Perfusion MRI forms a well-established component of glioma follow-up. In a recent survey among 220 European institutions, this technique was regarded as the modality of choice to distinguish radiation effects from tumor progression by the vast majority of institutions.37
The combination of MRS and DWI and/or perfusion imaging seems to be particularly powerful, with diagnostic accuracy reaching 90%,122, 123 and even >90% when all three techniques are used.124
Advanced MRI, particularly perfusion imaging and/or MRS, needs to be applied for the follow-up of treated brain tumor patients to distinguish pseudoprogression from true PD.
BasicWasabi · 7 hr. ago This is interesting and encouraging to see in (yet to be published) literature. It’s only 17 patients, so hard to feel like this is earth shattering.
The only question I have is why they’ve decided to use mean OS instead of median OS, which is the standard (and what was used in the JAMA oncology paper). It smacks a bit of trying to make the numbers look better than they are. Mean OS is 22.4 months, but median is 20.4. Mean was brought up by one outlier. Of course, an argument could be made that the outliers are what make up the fat tail, but I still see that as a bigger hill to climb—and much harder to claim with a small trial.
BasicWasabi · 6 hr. ago Instead of downvoting my comment, maybe people can engage in healthy dialogue and provide some constructive reasons why my point of mean/median is either inaccurate or irrelevant. As someone with an advanced science degree, I do actually know what tf I’m talking about. This sub is fast becoming insufferable.
level 2 rkawong66 · 5 hr. ago Where is the term 'mean OS' used in either article? I searched both the original JAMA article and the pre-print article referenced above and couldn't find it.
User avatar level 3 BasicWasabi · 4 hr. ago In the pre-pub article linked above, you have to look in the collapsed “Results” section. The top portion is just the abbreviated content, which doesn’t define whether their OS is median or mean. The quote further down says “The mean overall survival (mOS) from surgery to the date of death for the seventeen patients was 22.4 months (range?=?8.5–63.9 months).”
The JAMA article uses median, which is the crux of my point.
Assessment of Treatment Response to Dendritic Cell Vaccine in Patients with Glioblastoma using a Multiparametric MRI-Based Prediction Model
Laiz Laura de Godoy, Sanjeev Chawla, Steven Brem, Sumei Wang, and 6 more
This is a preprint; it has not been peer reviewed by a journal.
This work is licensed under a CC BY 4.0 License
Abstract Purpose Autologous tumor lysate-loaded dendritic cell vaccine (DCVax-L) is a promising treatment modality for glioblastomas. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential utility of multiparametric MRI-based prediction model in evaluating treatment response in glioblastoma patients treated with DCVax-L.
Methods Seventeen glioblastoma patients treated with standard-of-care therapy?+?DCVax-L were included. When tumor progression was suspected and repeat surgery was being contemplated, we sought to ascertain the number of cases correctly classified as true progression (TP)?+?mixed response or pseudoprogression (PsP) from multiparametric MRI-based prediction model using histopathology/mRANO criteria as ground truth. Multiparametric MRI model consisted of predictive probabilities (PP) of tumor progression computed from diffusion and perfusion MRI-derived parameters. A comparison of overall survival (OS) was performed between patients treated with standard-of-care therapy?+?DCVax-L and standard-of-care therapy alone (external controls). Additionally, Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed to compare OS between two groups of patients using PsP, Ki-67, and MGMT methylation status as stratification variables.
Results Multiparametric MRI model correctly predicted TP?+?mixed response in 72.7% of cases (8/11) and PsP in 83.3% (5/6) with an overall concordance rate of 76.5% with final diagnosis as determined by histopathology/mRANO criteria. There was a significant concordant correlation coefficient between PP values and histopathology/mRANO criteria (r?=?0.54; p?=?0.026). DCVax-L-treated patients had significantly prolonged OS than those treated with standard-of-care therapy (22.38?±?12.8 vs. 13.8?±?9.5months, p?=?0.040). Additionally, glioblastomas with PsP, MGMT methylation status, and Ki-67 values below median had longer OS than their counterparts.
Conclusion Multiparametric MRI-based prediction model can assess treatment response to DCVax-L in patients with glioblastoma.
Treatment response
Multiparametric MRI
Dendritic cell vaccine
Figure 1 Figure 1
Figure 2 Figure 2
Figure 3 Figure 3
Key Points - The spatial and temporal tumor heterogeneity present within glioblastomas render the usage of a single imaging modality or parameter unreliable in evaluating treatment response with high accuracy.
- Multiparametric MRI-based prediction model may aid in accurate assessment of treatment response to DCVax-L in glioblastoma patients.
- The combined use of standard-of-care therapy and DCVax-L prolongs overall survival in glioblastoma patients.
Introduction Glioblastoma is the most aggressive primary brain tumor, resistant to conventional therapy and carries a dismal prognosis. The current standard-of-care (SOC) treatment for newly diagnosed glioblastomas comprises maximal safe resection, followed by radiation therapy with concurrent temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy, followed by six cycles of adjuvant TMZ [1]. Despite multimodal therapy, the median overall survival remains only 15–17 months, with a 5-year survival rate of less than 5% [2].
Several immunotherapeutic approaches are currently being explored for the treatment of newly diagnosed and recurrent glioblastomas[3–5]. In particular, autologous tumor lysate-loaded dendritic cell vaccine (DCVax-L) has shown encouraging preliminary findings in pre-clinical animal model-based studies [6], and in early-stage clinical trials [7]. Recently, a large, multicentric, phase-3 clinical trial demonstrated acceptable safety and tolerability profiles of DCVax-L immunotherapy in glioblastoma patients [8] and reported prolonged survival outcomes in patients receiving DCVax-L plus SOC compared to those treated with standard therapy alone [9]. It is widely believed that various immunotherapeutic approaches, including DCVax-L, inhibit tumor growth by harnessing the power of patient’s own immune system. However, this process, in turn, induces extensive inflammation with peritumoral vasogenic edema, referred to as ‘treatment-related changes’ or ‘pseudoprogression’ (PsP) [10]. It, therefore, becomes imperative to accurately evaluate treatment response to DCVax-L, not only to determine its therapeutic efficacy, but also to determine clinical end-points.
As immunotherapies present new, complex patterns of response, conventional MRI is inadequate for reliable assessment of treatment response in glioblastoma patients, even after using refined response assessment criteria [11, 12]. In contrast, several studies have used advanced physiologic imaging techniques such as diffusion and perfusion MRI in evaluating treatment response to various immunotherapeutic regimens [13–17], including DCVax-L [16, 17] with variable success rates.
We previously developed a multiparametric MRI-based prediction model by combining the unique strengths of different imaging techniques to comprehensively evaluate treatment response in patients with glioblastoma who received surgery and concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) [18]. We have also successfully demonstrated the utility of this multiparametric approach in assessing treatment response to anti-EGFRvIII chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy in patients with recurrent glioblastomas with high accuracy [15].
In the present study, we extended our previously established multiparametric MRI-based predictive model [18] in evaluating treatment response to DCVax-L in glioblastoma patients.
Materials And Methods Patient Population The DCVax-L trial at the University of Pennsylvania, “A Phase-3 Clinical Trial Evaluating DC Vax®L, Autologous Dendritic Cells Pulsed with Tumor Lysate Antigen for the Treatment of Glioblastoma Multiforme”, per protocol, NCT00045968, was approved by the Abramson Cancer Center –Scientific Review Committee (UPCC # 34313) and the Institutional Review Board (#81817). The study was designed as a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, multi-center, multi-national phase-3 clinical trial. The trial randomized patients with newly diagnosed-glioblastoma with no evidence of progression at baseline into the treatment cohort to receive DCVax-L as adjuvant therapy to SOC treatment and into the placebo cohort to receive SOC treatment supplemented with autologous mononuclear cells (MNC; placebo). Patients in either cohort who progressed during the study were offered a crossover (open-label) option with no unblinding to receive DCVax-L.
The inclusion criteria for enrollment in the present study were that all patients i) had histologically confirmed diagnosis of glioblastoma [19]; (ii) had been treated with SOC, i.e., surgery and CCRT, iii) presented with a new enhancing lesion in the radiation field after completion of CCRT, (iv) underwent successful administration of DCVax-L, and (v) had availability of standard and advanced (DTI and DSC) neuroimaging data at follow-up time points.
Based upon the inclusion criteria, a cohort of 17 patients (mean age?=?58.1?±?6.7 years, 13 males/ 4 females) with glioblastoma treated with SOC treatment plus DCVax-L were included in this study. In patients in whom tumor specimen was available from repeat surgery/biopsy, malignant features on histopathology were used to identify TP?+?mixed response (>?25% viable cells with malignant features; n?=?9) or PsP ( Therefore, we used a combination of these three parameters to compute the predictive probabilities (PP) of true progression using the following regression equation:
, where ß0 = -16.17, ß1?=?194.01, ß2 = -285.65, and ß3?=?1.21.
The most recent MRI (with availability of DTI and DSC sequences) preceding re-resection/biopsy, when progressive disease was suspected, was used to compute PP values in the present cohort. The enhancing lesions were considered as ‘TP?+?mixed response’ if the PP was =?50% and ‘PsP’ if PP was The overall survival (OS) was considered the primary clinical endpoint. The survival time of all the patients was recorded from the date of surgery to death. In the present study, a cohort of 48 glioblastoma patients (treated with surgery followed by CCRT) from our previous study [22] was included as an external control group to compare survival outcomes between patients treated with SOC and patients treated with SOC plus DCVax-L. There were no significant differences in age, gender, and KPS between these two groups of patients [23]. All these patients were treated at the same institution undergoing surgery and adjuvant treatment by the same clinical team.
MRI Data Acquisition All patients underwent MRI on a 3T Tim Trio whole-body MR scanner (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) using a 12-channel phased-array head coil. The anatomical imaging protocol included axial 3D-T1-weighted magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition of gradient echo (MPRAGE) imaging and an axial T2-FLAIR imaging using standard parameters. The postcontrast T1-weighted images were acquired with the same parameters as the precontrast acquisition after administration of standard dose (0.14 mmol/Kg) of gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance, Bracco Imaging, Milano, Italy) intravenous contrast agent using a power injector (Medrad, Idianola, PA). Additionally, DTI and DSC-PWI sequences were acquired using the parameters described previously [18, 24, 25].
Image Processing And Data Analysis Motion and eddy current correction modules were applied to raw DTI data using an in-house developed software (IDL; ITT Visual Information Solutions, Boulder, Colorado). Pixel-wise mean diffusivity (MD), FA, CL, planar anisotropy (CP), and spherical anisotropy (CS) maps were computed by using the methods reported previously [24, 25]. Leakage-corrected CBV maps were generated by performing gamma-variate curve fitting from DSC-perfusion MRI data using NordicICE software (NordicNeuroLab, Bergen, Norway).
The DTI-derived maps, CBV maps, and T2-FLAIR images were resliced and co-registered to contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. A semiautomatic approach was used to segment the contrast-enhancing regions of each lesion by using a signal intensity-based thresholding method [24, 25]. The median values of DTI metrics (MD, FA, CL, CP, and CS) from the enhancing regions were measured. In addition, the lower 10th percentile MD values were measured from the enhancing region and were reported as MDmin. The CBV values from the enhancing regions were normalized by corresponding values from contralateral normal white matter to obtain relative CBV (rCBV). The top 90th percentile rCBV values were also measured from the enhancing region and were reported as rCBVmax.
Radiographic Response Assessment Using mRANO Criteria Patients in whom repeat surgery, or biopsy was not performed, mRANO criteria [21] were used to determine the final diagnosis of TP?+?mixed response or PsP by a board-certified neuroradiologist (SM).
Histological/immunohistochemical Analysis Tumor specimens were originally cut, mounted, and stained with hematoxylin-eosin by standard methods. The status of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT), and EGFRvIII was determined using standard procedures [26] by a board-certified neuropathologist (MPN) who was blinded to the neuroimaging results.
Statistical Analysis Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were used to determine the nature of data distribution. As the data showed departure from Gaussian distribution, non-parametric Mann-Whitney U tests were performed to assess differences in the median values of MD, FA, CL, CP, CS, rCBV, MDmin, and rCBVmax between TP?+?mixed response and PsP groups as determined by histopathology/mRANO criteria and by PP values. A probabilistic (p) value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. We sought to ascertain the number of cases correctly classified as PsP or TP?+?mixed response using multiparametric MRI-based prediction model using histopathology/mRANO criteria as ground truth in the final diagnosis of PsP and TP?+?mixed response. Pearson test was used to determine the concordance correlation coefficient between PP values and histopathology/mRANO criteria. Kaplan-Meier survival curve plots and log-rank tests were used to compare the OS using stratification factors: i) TP?+?mixed response and PsP treatment outcomes obtained from multiparametric MRI-based prediction model, and ii) histopathology/mRANO criteria; iii) MGMT profile (methylated and unmethylated status) ;iv) Ki-67 proliferation index in the recurrent specimens (above and below the median Ki-67); and v) imaging parameters (above and below the median values of FA, CL, and rCBVmax). A comparison of OS outcomes was performed between two matched groups of patients, one treated with SOC alone, the other DCVax-L plus SOC. Additionally, Pearson exact ?2 tests were performed to estimate the frequency of MGMT promoter methylation in TP?+?mixed response and PsP cases. All statistical analyses were performed using a statistical package, SPSS for Windows (v. 18.0; Chicago, IL).
Results Patient and tumor characteristics All patients (n?=?17) underwent maximal safe surgical resection upfront as newly diagnosed-glioblastomas, and 11/17 patients underwent repeat surgery for radiographically suspected progression (TP?+?mixed response?=?9; PsP?=?2) during or at the end of DCVax-L trial. Patients received intradermal injections of DCVax-L in the arm (mean dose of 0.27 ml?±?0.07 per injection; mean number of injections?=?6.9?±?2.2 per patient) six times in year one and twice per year thereafter. The patients harbored the following molecular profiles MGMT methylated (n?=?5), unmethylated (n?=?12), and IDH wild-type (n?=?17). The details of the demographic, clinical, and histopathological/immunohistochemical information are described in Table 1.
Table 1 Patient and tumor characteristics
DCVax-L dose when TP was suspected
Ki-67 recurrent specimen
4/4 doses
5/7 doses
9/10 doses
4/4 doses
6/9 doses
3/6 doses
6/7 doses
3/6 doses
6/9 doses
5/8 doses
8/11 doses
10/10 doses
3/4 doses
5/7 doses
4/4 doses
5/5 doses
6/6 doses
Abbreviations: y/o?=?years old; OS?=?overall survival; DCVax-L?=?Autologous tumor lysate-loaded dendritic cell vaccine; TP?=?true progression; MGMT?=?O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase; IDH?=?isocitrate dehydrogenase; EGFR?=?epidermal growth factor receptor. + = positive; - = negative. Determination Of TP?+?mixed Response And PsP Using MRI Data Representative anatomical images, DTI-derived parametric maps (FA, CL), and CBV maps from patients with TP?+?mixed response and PsP are shown, respectively, in Figs. 1-A and 1-B. The distributions of median values of DTI-derived parameters, and rCBVmax values from contrast-enhancing lesions of all patients are shown as box-and-whisker plots (Supplementary Fig. 1). No significant differences in these parameters were observed between the two groups of patients, using histopathology/mRANO criteria as the ground truth (p?>?0.05). While characterizing each lesion as TP?+?mixed response or PsP, our prediction model correctly predicted TP?+?mixed response in 8/11 of cases (72.7%) and PsP in 5/6 cases (83.3%) with an overall concordance rate of 76.5% with the final diagnosis determined by histopathology/mRANO criteria. Leave-one-out cross-validation analysis revealed that 76.5% of cases were correctly classified by using the multiparametric MRI model. Additionally, there was a significant concordant correlation coefficient between PP values and histopathology/mRANO criteria (r?=?0.54; p?=?0.026) (Table 2).
Table 2 Correlation between PP values and histopathology/mRANO criteria
Final Diagnosisa
TP/mixed response
TP/mixed response
TP/mixed response
TP/mixed response
TP/mixed response
TP/mixed response
TP/mixed response
TP/mixed response
TP/mixed response
TP/mixed response
TP/mixed response
TP/mixed response
TP/mixed response
TP/mixed response
TP/mixed response
TP/mixed response
TP/mixed response
TP/mixed response
TP/mixed response
TP/mixed response
a. PP-value: TP/mixed response if PP?=?50% and PsP if PP was ?25% and PsP if malignant features??0.05). While comparing the OS between two groups of patients (treated with SOC alone and DCVax-L plus SOC), significantly prolonged OS was observed from patients who were treated with DCVax-L plus SOC compared to those who were treated with only SOC (22.38?±?12.8 vs. 13.8?±?9.5 months, log-rank p?=?0.040, Fig. 2C).
As shown in Fig. 3, the frequency of patients harboring MGMT promoter methylation was significantly higher in PsP (5/6, 83.3%) than in TP?+?mixed response (0/11, 0%) cases when the assessment was performed using histopathology/mRANO criteria (p?=?0.001). A trend towards significance (p?=?0.079) was also observed when a similar assessment was performed using PP values derived from multiparametric MRI-based prediction model with the frequency of patients harboring MGMT promoter methylation higher in PsP (4/8, 50.0%) than in TP?+?mixed response (1/9, 11.11%).
Discussion In the present study, we used the combined utility of diffusion and perfusion MRI-derived parameters to assess treatment response to DCVax-L in glioblastoma patients. Our multiparametric MRI-based prediction model correctly classified new enhancing lesions as TP?+?mixed response or PsP in 76.5% of the cases. It is vital to accurately differentiate TP?+?mixed response from PsP for making informed clinical decisions on future therapeutic interventions and for precise prognostication of these patients.
Dendritic cell vaccine is an active immunotherapy that triggers an intense immune response by presenting tumor-associated/tumor-specific antigens towards major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs), allowing T-cells to bind, multiply and target tumor cells [27]. As with standard chemotherapy (temozolomide), conventional MRI neuroimaging patterns can be difficult to interpret in patients receiving immunotherapy [10]. Previous studies reported mixed results for evaluating treatment response by conventional neuroimaging in patients treated with diverse immunotherapeutic approaches [28–30]. Alternatively, diffusion and perfusion MRI techniques have been used with variable success to determine prognosis and to evaluate treatment response in glioblastoma patients treated with a variety of therapies [18, 31–33].
While evaluating treatment response to DCVax-L using diffusion and perfusion MRI techniques, a few studies observed considerable overlap in imaging parameters between TP and PsP cases [16, 17]. The limited success of these studies could be attributed to the fact that physiologic MRI techniques were used independently; imaging parameters were not synergistically integrated to obtain a reliable classification model to distinguish TP from PsP. Consistent with these studies, when we used DTI-derived parameters and rCBVmax independently to distinguish TP?+?mixed response or PsP in our study, we did not find significant differences for any single imaging parameter, substantiating the notion that individual parameters may not be always reliable, especially if the sample size is small.
The current study strengthens the concept that multiparametric analysis, by combining the unique strengths of diverse techniques, can lead to a more comprehensive and accurate assessment of treatment response in glioblastoma patients. We previously demonstrate the utility of multiparametric analysis to accurately evaluate treatment response to EGFRvIII targeted CAR-T cell immunotherapy [15] and interleukin-4 receptor-targeted immunotherapy [34] in patients with recurrent glioblastoma. In the present study, a significant concordant correlation coefficient was observed between multiparametric MRI and ground truth histopathology/mRANO method in determining the final diagnosis. Moreover, our prediction model correctly assessed the treatment response as PsP in 83.3% of cases, a result which is particularly helpful to promote personalized medicine: i) in avoiding unnecessary surgery/biopsy; ii) selecting effective treatment regimens; iii) maintaining effective therapy; and iv) providing reassurance to patients/practitioners. These findings are notable because glioblastomas are highly heterogeneous, genotypically and phenotypically, with heterogeneity increasing with treatment, including immunotherapy [12].
In the current study, we observed a significantly prolonged mean OS for patients treated with SOC therapy and DCVax-L, compared to a matched external control group from the same institution treated SOC alone, supporting a survival benefit of DCVax-L. The mean OS of patients treated with DCVax-L was 22.4 months versus 14 months (range 1–58 months) in the cohort of patients (n?=?48) treated with only with SOC. These findings are consistent with the phase-3 clinical trial results indicating that DCVax-L has survival benefits in glioblastoma patients [9].
In the current study, PsP patients had significantly prolonged OS than patients with TP?+?mixed response using histopathology/mRANO criteria, a finding consistent with previous studies involving glioblastoma patients treated with CCRT and alternative/targeted therapies or immunotherapies [7, 35–39] that have also reported that PsP patients have a superior prognosis [40–42].
Prior studies demonstrated that glioblastoma patients harboring methylated MGMT promotor treated with SOC have better clinical outcomes and MRI-based responses than those harboring unmethylated MGMT promoter [43, 44]. The DCVax-L phase-3 clinical trial, [9] also showed superior OS in methylated MGMT promoter group compared to MGMT unmethylated patients, and in comparison to MGMT methylated patients treated only with SOC. In concordance with the clinical trial, our DCVax-L -treated patients showed longer OS in MGMT methylated than in MGMT unmethylated group. The improvement in survival in MGMT methylated patients treated with DCVax-L could be due to synergies with TMZ chemotherapy [9]. In the current study, we also investigated the prognostic value of Ki-67 (cellular proliferation index) to determine the survival outcomes. In agreement with previous results [42], our glioblastoma harboring an elevated ki-67 score had a worse OS compared to patients with a lower ki-67 score. [42].
Despite promising results, our study had some shortcomings, including the retrospective study design, and the relatively small sample size of patients treated with DCVax-L. Additionally, 6/17 patients did not undergo repeat surgery/biopsy, with lack of tumor specimens for determining the final ‘ground truth’ diagnosis of TP?+?mixed response and PsP.
In conclusion, our findings indicate that multiparametric MRI could be a useful approach to assess response to DCVax-L immunotherapy in patients with glioblastoma. These encouraging findings warrant further validation in larger, prospective clinical trials.
Abbreviations CL- coefficient of linear anisotropy; CP- coefficient of planar anisotropy; CS - coefficient of spherical anisotropy; CAR-T - chimeric antigen receptor T-cell; CCRT - concurrent chemoradiation therapy; DCVax-L – autologous tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cell vaccine; DTI - diffusion tensor imaging; DSC - dynamic susceptibility contrast; FA - fractional anisotropy; GBM - glioblastoma; IDH- isocitrate dehydrogenase; MD - mean diffusivity; MGMT - O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase; MRI - magnetic resonance imaging; OS - overall survival; PP- predictive probability of tumor progression; PsP - pseudoprogression; rCBV - relative cerebral blood volume; SOC - standard-of-care; TMZ - temozolomide; TP - true progression.
Declarations Acknowledgments
The support of Penn Neuroradiology Clinical Research Core (Ms. Lauren Karpf, Ms. Lisa Desiderio, and Dr. Shadi Asadollah) and Penn Neurosurgery Clinical Research Division (Ms. Eileen Maloney) and clinical research coordinators is gratefully acknowledged.
The dendritic cell vaccine trial at the University of Pennsylvania was sponsored by Northwest Biotherapeutics, the protocol, “A Phase-3 Clinical Trial Evaluating DC Vax®L, Autologous Dendritic Cells Pulsed with Tumor Lysate Antigen for the Treatment of Glioblastoma Multiforme”, approved by the Abramson Cancer Center – CTSRMC (Clinical Trials Scientific Review Committee (UPCC # 34313) and the Institutional Review Board (#81817). The data analyses and the drafting of the manuscript were performed by the authors, independent of the sponsor.
Funding: The author(s) received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
Conflict of interest: Dr. S. Brem received partial support of travel expenses in 2022 from Northwest Biotherapeutics. The remaining authors do not have any potential conflicts of interest.
Data availability: The datasets generated during and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
Ethics Approval: This study was performed in line with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. The DCVax-L trial at the University of Pennsylvania, “A Phase-3 Clinical Trial Evaluating DC Vax®L, Autologous Dendritic Cells Pulsed with Tumor Lysate Antigen for the Treatment of Glioblastoma Multiforme” was sponsored by Northwest Biotherapeutics, using the protocol, NCT00045968. It was approved by the Abramson Cancer Center – CTSRMC (Clinical Trials Scientific Review Committee (UPCC # 34313) and the Institutional Review Board (#81817).
Consent to Participate: Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
submitted by jhpratt2 to NWBO [link] [comments]

2023.02.22 03:01 ForSacredRussia1 Utro Dagestan 🕺⚔: "Since 2017, Russian mercenaries from PMC Wagner have been accused of beating and killing an unarmed Syrian with a sledgehammer. The Dossier Center and journalists Die Welt, Insider, Paris Match and Arte managed to find out the names of the killers"

Utro Dagestan 🕺⚔:
SOURCE: https:// t . me/utro_dagestan/5892

Russian mercenaries are being accused from 2017 for the killing of an unarmed Syrian with a sledgehammer.
Since 2017, Russian mercenaries from PMC Wagner have been accused of beating and killing an unarmed Syrian with a sledgehammer. The Dossier Center and journalists Die Welt, Insider, Paris Match and Arte managed to find out the names of the killers

Here is the main thing from their investigation (https:// meduza . io/feature/2023/02/20/rossiyskih-naemnikov-s-2017-goda-obvinyayut-v-izbienii-kuvaldoy-i-ubiystve-bezoruzhnogo-siriytsa-chvk-vagnera-provodilo-rassledovanie-chtoby-uznat-kto-vinovat-v-utechke-zapisi):

✹ In the summer of 2017, a video appeared on the Internet in which four people severely beat a fifth with a sledgehammer. It was assumed that these could be Wagner PMC fighters in Syria.

✹ In November 2019, three videos appeared on the network, which are a continuation of the original. On them, a person’s head is cut off with a knife, their hands are chopped off with a shovel, the body is hung by the legs, doused with gasoline and burned.

✹ Novaya Gazeta found out the identity of one of the alleged killers. The editors of the publication appealed to the Kremlin, the Investigative Committee and the Prosecutor General's Office with a request to open a criminal case in connection with the murder, but there was no reaction.

✹ On the other hand, the security service of PMC Wagner launched an investigation to find out who is to blame for the leak of the recording.

✹ The fighter, whose record was leaked to the network, turned out to be 26-year-old Mikhail Masharov with the call sign “Mavr”. For unauthorized filming on the phone, he was fired from the PMC without the right to be reinstated.

✹ The order to kill, the Dossier suggests, was given by the commander of the 4th assault detachment Nikolai Budko - he received the footage, and he handed them over to the brigade command. The murder in Syria, committed on his orders, did not entail any consequences for him.

✹ The Dossier Center also named the names of all the other participants in the murder and published their brief biographies - these are Jahongir Mirazorov ("Pamir"), Vladislav Apostol ("Wolf"), Vladimir Kitaev ("Chinese"), Vladislav Panchuk ("Roger") , Oleg Kongin ("Kong"), Andrey Bakunovich ("Sling"), Igor Krizhanovsky ("Ricochet").


Российских наемников из ЧВК Вагнера с 2017 года обвиняют в избиении кувалдой и убийстве безоружного сирийца. Центру «Досье» и журналистам Die Welt, Insider, Paris Match и Arte удалось узнать имена убийц

Вот главное из их расследования (https:// meduza . io/feature/2023/02/20/rossiyskih-naemnikov-s-2017-goda-obvinyayut-v-izbienii-kuvaldoy-i-ubiystve-bezoruzhnogo-siriytsa-chvk-vagnera-provodilo-rassledovanie-chtoby-uznat-kto-vinovat-v-utechke-zapisi):

✹ Летом 2017 года в интернете появилось видео, на котором четыре человека жестоко избивают пятого кувалдой. Предполагалось, что это могли быть бойцы ЧВК Вагнера в Сирии.

✹ В ноябре 2019 года в сети появились три ролика, являющихся продолжением оригинального. На них человеку отрезают голову ножом, отрубают руки лопатой, вешают тело за ноги, обливают бензином и сжигают.

✹ «Новая газета» выяснила личность одного из предполагаемых убийц. Редакция издания обратилась в Кремль, СК и Генпрокуратуру с просьбой возбудить уголовное дело в связи с убийством, однако никакой реакции не последовало.

✹ Зато расследование начала служба безопасности ЧВК Вагнера — чтобы узнать, кто виноват в утечке записи.

✹ Бойцом, чья запись утекла в сеть, оказался 26-летний Михаил Машаров с позывным «Мавр». За самовольную съемку на телефон он был уволен из ЧВК без права восстановления.

✹ Приказ об убийстве, предполагает «Досье», отдал командир 4-го штурмового отряда Николай Будько — к нему поступали отснятые материалы, а он передавал их командованию бригады. Никаких последствий убийство в Сирии, совершенное по его приказу, для него не повлекло.

✹ Центр «Досье» также назвал имена всех остальных участников убийства и опубликовал их краткие биографии — это Джахонгир Миразоров («Памир»), Владислав Апостол («Волк»), Владимир Китаев («Китаец»), Владислав Панчук («Роджер»), Олег Конгин («Конг»), Андрей Бакунович («Стропа»), Игорь Крижановский («Рикошет»).
submitted by ForSacredRussia1 to FreedomofRussia [link] [comments]

2023.02.09 10:37 ZimkaFuji [A3][Recruiting][Casual MILSIM][EU/NA] [New Player Friendly] BlackCrusaders Brigade Recruiting

[A3][Recruiting][Casual MILSIM][EU/NA] BlackCrusaders Brigade Discord -
Who are we?
The BlackCrusaders brigade is a casual milsim unit. We strive to create a realistic but enjoyable experience to our members and like to keep our operations as fresh as possible. We play as a modern Western fictional/PMC group using equipment from various nations.
What do we offer?
BCB has a variety of roles and specializations from rotary-wing pilots to combat engineers. Our operations are organized into campaigns on various terrains. Our mission editors aim to create immersive gameplay. We create many types of operations to complete such as city protection to HVT eliminations. When not in operations we usually have a persistent gamemode running, such as Antistasi or Vindicta.
Operations and Trainings
All of our events are hosted in Central Eropean Time (CET) typically starting at around 17:00 to 19:00 and will be played usually until 22:00. Our Operations are usually hosted on Saturdays or Sundays while trainings are hosted throughout the week. There is no mandatory attendance, but we do ask you to attend operations and trainings whenever you can. We understand that life comes first.
Additional Information
We look for respect in our members and those who can contribute to the unit in a positive way.
We ask people to be social in our unit. If you have questions, don't be afraid to ask. We appreciate any constructive criticism or suggestions, as we are a relatively new unit.
We do not have any age requirement, but we ask all of our members to present a level of maturity.
All members must have a functional microphone, a legitimate copy of ArmA 3
All members must must speak English.
submitted by ZimkaFuji to FindAUnit [link] [comments]

2023.02.02 21:37 tweakus_deletus Rouges in Lighthouse USEC camp?

Rouges in Lighthouse USEC camp?
Using SVM mod and am wondering how to make sure that the Lighthouse rouges in the USEC camp spawn all of the time. In the Bots to PMC bots converter section, it says the higher number means more PMC's, so I'm assuming if the number is 0 for USEC Rogues, then they should always spawn?
submitted by tweakus_deletus to SPTarkov [link] [comments]

2023.01.27 19:07 Scared-Expression444 AI mods

I love SPT but I have a slight issue with the PMC AI, I don’t typically ever see PMC’s on any map other than customs despite going to “hot zones” like resort and new sawmill on woods, I have POOP’s AI tweaks, and the extended spawn point and open zones mod and also have upped the amount of PMC’s that spawn on the map via the server value editor mod but I played a few interchange raids and still saw one PMC any other mods that make the PMC’s move around the map more and go to popular areas?
submitted by Scared-Expression444 to SPTarkov [link] [comments]

2023.01.13 20:23 blank_anonymous Weekly(ish) MathSoc Academics Thread

Hi folks! For those of you who haven't seen my n posts/comments on the subreddit or met me in person, my name is Nicky, and I'm this term's MathSoc president (and a past PMC president, and a past mathNEWS editor, and an orientation leader, and a mathsoc councilloboard member. If you're involved on campus you've probably met me).
The reason I'm making this thread is I get to meet with people who have substantial authority fairly often; I'm meeting with the dean of math soon, I mean with various associate deans and committees pretty often. These are the people who enact university policy, decide course offerings and degree requirements.
I also have pretty regular meetings with the people in charge of M4 construction, which means that I have the ability to directly talk to the people deciding how M4 space will be used. My predecessor Evan already made excellent steps towards more student space in M4, and we're working on a concrete, signed agreement.
The issue is that I need to know what to advocate for. I obviously have thoughts, but my thoughts are the thoughts of a pure mathematician, the thoughts of someone who dropped co-op, and the thoughts of someone who has a very unique academic experience. I, very likely, will be unaware things that you care about. Enter these threads!
If there is any piece of university or course policy, no matter how big or small you want changed, or if there's something related to M4/your major you want clarified or advocated for, you can comment in this thread, visit the exec office in MC3038 (it'll be closed for a bit around 3:00 while we have a meeting), or email me at president at mathsoc dot uwaterloo dot ca. I plan to make these threads weekly-ish so that, if you have issues, you can get in touch with me in a less formal setting.
- Nicky <3
submitted by blank_anonymous to uwaterloo [link] [comments]

2023.01.08 23:50 justaren Are you a new Player? Here are the mods to use & settings on SVM

Long time lurker on EFT but you keep dying cause of the learning curve, well since you installed SPT on your rig, you want to enjoy the game and learn at the same time. Been playing since the SPT updated to the new wipe and I cannot stop playing it.
I've seen to many asked questions on discord and in this sub page so I decided to have a one stop shop by any means I'm not an expert in the game but below are the things that i have gathered and made the game enjoyable to me.
First of all thanks to the SPT Teams and MOD Devs in keeping this mod alive.
For my first profile I decided to give myself a little chance to survive a raid to understand the game & learn the mechanics but keep in mind I'm LEVEL 11 right now, so I'm fairly new and learning with you but when I get the hang of things then I will slowly changing the settings to default.
Any changes or additional mods you add or make let me know and how this help you on your first raids.
MODS - Where do MODS go to? What Folder?
MY SVM Settings -
AMANDS'S GRAPHICS 1.2.0 - you can see better in game and better FPS but this is dependent on what your PC can handle
GAME PANEL HUD 2.3.4 - Give you a little help with the hub such as compass, how many bullets you have, status of your health. This is probably the most helpful hud for any new comer like myself.
SPT-AKI PROFILE EDITOR 2.5 - You can edit your profile, like stuck on a quest or change a things like Leveling up your stats and more but I just use this to ultimately if i'm stuck on a quest that i cannot find the item.
TIME & WEATHER CHANGER 2.3.1 - Is your raid too dark? well this can control the time & weather with this by using the HOME button your keyboard. while in game.
AMANDS'S HITMARKER 2.2.0 - I'm still learning this but it gives you a little satisfaction of your bullet hitting the scav/boss/pmc.
AI LIMIT 1.4.1 - this load the bots within your distance and help out your FPS.
INSURANCE+ 1.0.1 (AKI 3.4.X) - This will help you with gear fear, basically you get to keep what you went in the raid with but remember you will lose the stuff you find that in your bag unless you insure it.
NEVER LOSE EQUIPMENTS 4.3.0 - Do you keep dying & losing your loot that are in your pockets, vest & backpack, well this help alot. The only issue I have with this is my STASH capacity, organize your stash with other cases and bags but dont be a hoarder and keep every loot you have, sell that shit. get a case for your meds, keys, bullets.
PROPS OBVIOUSLY ORIGINAL PROGRAM (POOP) 1.4.0 - This will make SCAV/BOSS/PMCS play like their online, with random difficulty when they spawn in but if you want to up the challenge try POOP VARIETY 1.3.0 set the tone of the difficulty.
SIMPLE WAVE AI GENERATOR (SWAG) 1.3.0 - This will make SCAV/BOSS/PMCS play like their online, with random difficulty when they spawn. Tone of the difficulty add this SWAG VARIETY 1.2.0C but you will to download the this version of SWAG 1.2.0
ALL OPEN ZONES 1.0.1 - Can't really tell if this mod is doing anything cause my heart is racing while in raid and anxiety kicks in but this mod will spawn PMC and SCAVS anywhere in the map.
NO BUSH ESP 1.10 This will make the bots can't find you in the bushes instantly from a distance. I haven't tried this myself as I don't camp a lot.
SPT REALISM AMMO STAT 1.0.0 - it'll show what DMG and PEN of each bullet Sample Picture
SERVPH'S COMBAT OVERHAUL 0.5-A (3.4.0 / 3.4.1) - adds a little visual to where you hold the gun while walking (videos on links) and also changes a bit with the recoil as well.
SERVPH'S TARKY MENU (3.4.0) - Similar to SVM program but you can change the FOV
submitted by justaren to SPTarkov [link] [comments]

2022.12.19 07:39 robertsmiththesis Reliable and Affordable Plagiarism Detector for Students in 2022

Did you know? Our senior has received a rejection from a reputed journal! The journal editors said they found a lot of plagiarized content. How come he never used a plagiarism detector? There are so many tools on internet. Now he will have to rework on the whole paper and go through paper submission process again!
As a researcher, you will agree how tedious the process of paper publishing is! Therefore, it is not worthy to go through this process again due to plagiarized content. Detecting it in your paper is not a difficult task, if you know which tool to use.
In this article we will discuss about online tools that are trustworthy and user-friendly, and how to manage plagiarism detectors to eliminate intentional, reckless, or unintentional plagiarized content.

What Is Plagiarism?

Broadly speaking plagiarism is defined as copying another person’s work or borrowing someone else’s original idea, without giving due credit. However, when it comes to plagiarized content in research publishing –
  1. Showing someone else’s work as your own,
  2. Repeating words or ideas from someone else without giving credit,
  3. Not putting quotation marks to quotations,
  4. Providing incorrect information about the source from where the quote was taken,
  5. And using images, videos or audio without providing proper citations is plagiarism.

How Does Plagiarism Affect the Research Community?

Due to the world of digitization and inappropriate reuse of resources from internet, plagiarism largely affects academic research. In olden days, it was easier to detect plagiarism, but with the increase in use of electronic media and online journals dishonesty and academic fraud is difficult to detect.
It injures the research ethics and integrity. It questions the researchers, professors or students of their credibility and can lead to severe punishments such as suspension and lose of authority.
However, there has been a rise in detection software which can assist researchers, professors, and students in identifying the copied content. Moreover, the softwares are well tested, widely available, affordable and easy to us. Furthermore, the software can help users identify self-plagiarized content, which they themselves are not aware of.

Why Is Plagiarism Detector Important for Students?

Even after seeing a constant rise in dependency on plagiarism detectors, most of the students are still unaware and ignorant about the use of plagiarism checker tools and ways to avoid plagiarism.
Moreover, many students hesitate to use plagiarism detectors because they believe their research content is genuine. However, even best writers fall prey to accidental plagiarism and thus need to resort to plagiarism detectors.

1. Plagiarism Detectors Can Provide more References and Wider Cross-reference Repositories

Internet is a hub for pool of data. The search engines cannot do justice to the vastness of research data available. However, plagiarism checkers provide more references and wider range of cross-reference repositories. In fact, you could find books and articles that are included in the repositories with plagiarism programs which cannot be found directly on search engines.

2. Highlighting Content Becomes Easier for Detecting Plagiarism

It is challenging to search sentence by sentence for an accidental presence of plagiarism. However, plagiarism checker for students shows the material that is compared in the results. Furthermore, you will get the details about sources of the original content, and you could also access the site of source.

3. Gives You Thorough Data of Comparisons or Matches

Plagiarism checker for students provides a total percentage of comparisons or matches. Universities often have an agreed standard of percentage that students need to adhere to. Therefore, plagiarism detector can help students eliminate any issues that suspect plagiarism.

4. Resort to Plagiarism Checkers Instead of Paraphrasing

These tools save your time and effort, as compared to paraphrasing services. Furthermore, plagiarism detectors highlight any work that is similar to the original text of the author and fix the sentence if you could not correctly paraphrase and quote the test.

5. Using Plagiarism Checker Proves Your Honest Intentions

You could provide the plagiarism results which submitting the assignments, as a necessary precaution, if you are questioned regarding plagiarized content. Also, this shows your honest intention of creating unique content and could be given a benefit of doubt for unintentional or accidental plagiarism.

How Does Plagiarism Detector Work?

The tools use advanced database software to scan for a match between your text and existing text. These detection tools crawl web content and index it, they further scan your text and check for similarities against the database of existing content. Furthermore, keyword analysis highlights exact matches.
A user usually gets results in the form of plagiarism percentage, highlighted plagiarized content, and the list of sources. Though most of the checker tools operate similarly, there are some differences between them that affect the types of plagiarism that they can detect.
Examples of plagiarism checker tool and how they generate user-friendly results —
Enago’s plagiarism checker is one of a kind tool for quick, comprehensive, and dependable plagiarism checking. It not only provides plagiarism percentage with color-coded system but also enlists sources that have similarities with your document. It is easy to access with one click upload button.
The added feature of AI-based grammar check allows you to improve your document by correcting errors typical to academic and formal writing, such as spelling, grammar, and tone. Additionally, Enago’s plagiarism checker has power editing mode like none other. It enhances your document by correcting sentence structure, word choice, subject-specific phrasing, and much more.


There are many plagiarism detectors over the internet and they raise the question about data safety and security. Researchers are insecure about using these tools. However, there is no fear in using tools that provide paid and authentic services. You could do a thorough research on the detecting tools before buying their service.
Meticulous or not, you may accidentally plagiarize your content and it is best to use an accurate software eyes to review your content.
Have you used any of the above mentioned plagiarism tools? How was your experience throughout the process? Do write to us or comment below!
submitted by robertsmiththesis to u/robertsmiththesis [link] [comments]

2022.12.18 21:25 ZimkaFuji [A3][Recruiting][Casual MILSIM][EU/NA] [New Player Friendly] BlackCrusaders Brigade

[A3][Recruiting][Casual MILSIM][EU/NA] BlackCrusaders Brigade Discord -
Who are we?
The BlackCrusaders brigade is a casual milsim unit. We strive to create a realistic but enjoyable experience to our members and like to keep our operations as fresh as possible. We play as a modern Western fictional/PMC group using equipment from various nations.
What do we offer?
BCB has a variety of roles and specializations from rotary-wing pilots to combat engineers. Our operations are organized into campaigns on various terrains. Our mission editors aim to create immersive gameplay. We create many types of operations to complete such as city protection to HVT eliminations. When not in operations we usually have a persistent gamemode running, such as Antistasi or Vindicta.
Operations and Trainings
All of our events are hosted in Central Eropean Time (CET) typically starting at around 17:00 to 19:00 and will be played usually until 22:00. Our Operations are usually hosted on Saturdays or Sundays while trainings are hosted throughout the week. There is no mandatory attendance, but we do ask you to attend operations and trainings whenever you can. We understand that life comes first.
Additional Information
We look for respect in our members and those who can contribute to the unit in a positive way.
We ask people to be social in our unit. If you have questions, don't be afraid to ask. We appreciate any constructive criticism or suggestions, as we are a relatively new unit.
We do not have any age requirement, but we ask all of our members to present a level of maturity.
All members must have a functional microphone, a legitimate copy of ArmA 3
All members must must speak English.
submitted by ZimkaFuji to FindAUnit [link] [comments]

2022.12.12 20:17 Ricosss Re: Effect of a ketogenic diet versus Mediterranean diet on glycated hemoglobin in individuals with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus: the interventional Keto-Med randomized crossover trial (Pub: 2022-07-26)
Tro Kalayjian and Eric C Westman📷
Dear Editor:
We applaud Gardner et al. (1) for their study, especially during a pandemic. Lowering dietary carbohydrate is known to improve glycemic control (2), but this study has several methodological limitations, appearing as if there were a bias against the keto diet [Well Formulated Ketogenic Diet (WFKD)]. Bias #1: medication reduction was different for the 2 periods: during the WFKD period, subjects were instructed to stop the medication (which affects the main outcome of HbA1c), yet in the Mediterranean-Plus (Med-Plus) diet period, the dose was reduced by only 50% [the article states “excluding the four participants (who discontinued the medications), we observed a significant difference for both HbA1c and HDL-C between diets, favoring WFKD”]. Bias #2: changes in glycemic control “were adjusted for weight loss,” diminishing one of the advantages of the WFKD as compared with other diets: superior weight loss. Most concerning, though, are the basic design flaws that this crossover study did not have a washout period (to ensure a return to baseline state), nor a power calculation. Because a return to baseline state did not occur, most methodologists would suggest to treat the study as a parallel-group design and confine analysis to the first period alone (3). So, for the primary outcome, HbA1c, we would like to see a statistical analysis confined to the first period alone for the WFKD compared with Med-Plus diets (mean change: 0.66 compared with 0.31; n = 16; Supplemental Table 6A). If nonsignificant, we would like to see a post hoc power calculation to assess whether sufficient subjects were included in the study to exclude a clinically meaningful difference between the 2 diets.
submitted by Ricosss to ketoscience [link] [comments]

2022.12.08 00:40 JSFXPrime2 Oh dear! The NIH's PubMed repository has been overrun by dangerous antivaxxers!1!1 Why won't Tabac (NIH) and Fauci (NIAID) do something about it?? It's Settled Science® that the vaxxes cannot be involved in genomic integration!1!1 This disinformation is going to kill so many grandmas!1!1

Oh dear! The NIH's PubMed repository has been overrun by dangerous antivaxxers!1!1 Why won't Tabac (NIH) and Fauci (NIAID) do something about it?? It's Settled Science® that the vaxxes cannot be involved in genomic integration!1!1 This disinformation is going to kill so many grandmas!1!1 submitted by JSFXPrime2 to CoronavirusCirclejerk [link] [comments]

2022.12.05 22:14 LouisXIV_ New guide for journalists covering abortion includes many pro-choice talking points

This morning, the Associated Press Stylebook published an "Abortion Topical Guide" for reporters. This is a big deal because publications from national newspapers, magazines and TV networks to your local town paper or radio station follow AP Style, meaning the organization influences what almost every American reads or hears about abortion.
The Associated Press cites the pro-choice American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) in many of its rules, including these:
Other rules include:
Several times, the AP Style guide cites the Guttmacher Institute, which supports abortion rights. But the guide doesn't cite any pro-life organizations or even any neutral/nonpartisan sources of data!
So if you think the media is biased against pro-lifers, you're right. Individual reporters who are against abortion won't have the freedom to ignore the above rules unless their editor also happens to be pro-life.
Source: I've worked in the media/communications for 16 years.

submitted by LouisXIV_ to prolife [link] [comments]

2022.12.05 21:38 Bobbs26 Raiders not spawning in the Bunker on Reserve. For some reason they are hardly ever spawning. I’ve done like 10 runs and they have only ever spawned once. Rest of times used the power lever and nothing. See my values in the pic

Raiders not spawning in the Bunker on Reserve. For some reason they are hardly ever spawning. I’ve done like 10 runs and they have only ever spawned once. Rest of times used the power lever and nothing. See my values in the pic submitted by Bobbs26 to SPTarkov [link] [comments]

2022.11.29 18:04 ZimkaFuji [A3][Recruiting][Casual MILSIM][EU/NA] [New Player Friendly] BlackCrusaders Brigade

[A3][Recruiting][Casual MILSIM][EU/NA] BlackCrusaders Brigade Discord -
Who are we?
The BlackCrusaders brigade is a casual milsim unit. We strive to create a realistic but enjoyable experience to our members and like to keep our operations as fresh as possible. We play as a modern Western fictional/PMC group using equipment from various nations.
What do we offer?
BCB has a variety of roles and specializations from rotary-wing pilots to combat engineers. Our operations are organized into campaigns on various terrains. Our mission editors aim to create immersive gameplay. We create many types of operations to complete such as city protection to HVT eliminations. When not in operations we usually have a persistent gamemode running, such as Antistasi or Vindicta.
Operations and Trainings
All of our events are hosted in Central Eropean Time (CET) typically starting at around 17:00 to 19:00 and will be played usually until 22:00. Our Operations are usually hosted on Saturdays or Sundays while trainings are hosted throughout the week. There is no mandatory attendance, but we do ask you to attend operations and trainings whenever you can. We understand that life comes first.
Additional Information
We look for respect in our members and those who can contribute to the unit in a positive way.
We ask people to be social in our unit. If you have questions, don't be afraid to ask. We appreciate any constructive criticism or suggestions, as we are a relatively new unit.
We do not have any age requirement, but we ask all of our members to present a level of maturity.
All members must have a functional microphone, a legitimate copy of ArmA 3
All members must must speak English.
submitted by ZimkaFuji to FindAUnit [link] [comments]

2022.11.28 20:52 PalatableMahogany The immune system doesn't function and can't kill viruses without adequate vitamin D. Studies which measure vitamin D levels at time of hospitalization show only those deficient die of COVID, both vaxxed and unvaxxed. That's why Fauci only mentioned vitamin D once, 9 months/300k deaths into pandemic

The immune system doesn't function and can't kill viruses without adequate vitamin D. Studies which measure vitamin D levels at time of hospitalization show only those deficient die of COVID, both vaxxed and unvaxxed. That's why Fauci only mentioned vitamin D once, 9 months/300k deaths into pandemic submitted by PalatableMahogany to conspiracy [link] [comments]

2022.11.19 20:18 Arkadag_ Developer's Diary VII: Age of Decline and Democracy

Developer's Diary VII: Age of Decline and Democracy
Editor's note: gfx is far from finished and will be released as a series of separate teasers, my apologies, it is not possible to drag out this diary indefinitely.

Hello all readers, this is Turkmenbashy and, after a long and difficult year, we are ready to present you with another faction claiming the primacy in the race for English rule.
Let's walk briefly through the Civil War to refresh the reader's memory: In 2015, Britain's economic and political crisis, caused by the U.S. withdrawal from Europe, Continental Europe's turn towards Moscow, the partial collapse of the Eurozone and the destruction of the Suez Canal in the recent Arab-Israeli War, led to the secession of Scotland, Wales and Ulster from the United Kingdom and then to massive protests in major cities in England. During the riots, Prime Minister Tony Blair was killed, his government fled to Germany, and the Queen went missing. The new King George VII takes over but only the southern parts of the kingdom remain under his direct control. In the north, the Albion Cooperative, a republican pro-Eurasian government, forms and wages war with the Royalists in Midlands. The capital, on the other hand, finds itself under the control of its own residents: beggars and marginals, who clump together in bandit and nationalist groups. Despite the utter incapacity of such anarchy for independence, the huge population and infrastructure of London allowed the Nationalists to barricade themselves in and any attempt by Republican and Royalist forces to take back Britain's capital ended in failure. These misfortunes led to two splits in the South: first, the departure of Prince Harry to Sussex, where he formed his own state in conjunction with part of the remaining Labor party, and then the escape of the Conservative party to Kent. Both factions grew weary of the king's indecisiveness in suppressing the London rebellion, but neither was able to achieve any result themselves. For the Albion Cooperative, the stalling of the war turned on a new rival who subdued Midlands, a militia of repentant bandits, deserters, heathens and various radicals to stop the war ravaging their native England, under the resounding name of the Black Army of Britain.

In between these events, Europe's gendarme, Germany, intervened in the war at the request of the fugitive government and its own overwhelming desire to settle all the surrounding states. And their intervention will be discussed today.


By the time the war broke out in Britain, Germany had established a fairly strong authoritarian regime. With the help of a conspiracy in the army and a powerful propaganda machine, the Greens managed to take power away from the Social Democrats. Unlike the former chancellor, Schröder, who did not want to interfere in Britain's internal affairs, which could have caused discontent in Eurasia, Annalena Berbock, the new German chancellor, who was skeptical about further cooperation with Moscow, decided to support the British government in exile in exchange for large-scale concessions in favor of Berlin, which would have put England in a very dependent position on the Germans.

In the course of the operation, the Bundeswehr conducts a landing in East Anglia, after which it captures Suffolk and Norfolk. However, the real aim of the intervention was London, where a legitimate government was to be re-established. Tank wedges marched on the British capital.

But despite the chaos in the city itself, Londoners organized its defense and burned pyramids of German equipment. Not a single Bundeswehr unit succeeded in taking any of the capital's boroгughs. The interventionist forces were forced to flee and fortify themselves to the north. The failed assault forced the Germans to halt all offensive operations, as the formations were bleeding to death.

These circumstances led Berlin to change its strategy toward the remaining counties of Suffolk and Norfolk behind the interventionist forces. A "Department of East Anglia" was proclaimed there, where a civil-military government headed by Governor Joseph Maria Klumb was immediately formed. The man in question was not originally an official of any kind. He was only a fairly well-known musician, but had radical right-wing political positions. He was widely popular in Eurasia and became a goodwill ambassador, despite his differences of opinion with Schroeder. With the rise of the Greens, however, relations with Moscow began to freeze, and Klumb was seen as increasingly dangerous for his right-wing and Euroskeptic stance as well as his credibility as a successful media agent. So he was sent into "honorary exile" on the island. Along with him went many German generals suspected of preparing a nationalist coup against the government.
Among them was Reinhard Günzel, who decided to use his military prowess to make a living and formed his own PMC, which consists of people from all over Europe. He himself was expelled from the generalship for daring to support Martin Hohmann, an opposition nationalist who was also expelled to East Anglia, like Klumb. From this point on he became close to the governor and Guenzel's main client became the East Anglia department.

Already, as head of the region, Joseph Maria, begins to involve locals in the administration. One of the collaborators was Troy Southgate, head of the National-Anarchist Movement, who, during the Civil War, organized with his supporters agrarian communes in the interior of East Anglia. The governor's personal sympathy for the National-Anarchists, as an off-systemic right that had no place in Germany, made it possible to negotiate with the leader of the movement and direct their efforts towards outreach.

Nevertheless, the failure near London led to the fact that the intervention now had only the character of holding occupied territories. This allowed the German government to sink the undesirables there on the one hand, and on the other to reduce the group of troops operating there. This was a serious burden for the leadership of the Department, which was forced to rely for the most part on mercenaries and the British volunteer corps; only a couple of tank brigades were left of the old group of troops.

The resistance of the NSIS (No System Is Safe) hackers is also a problem. It is a group of elusive fighters against the German occupation who, through terrorist attacks on Europe's electronic systems, try to force Berlin to withdraw from England. Each punitive action in Suffolk and Norfolk has ended with the theft of intelligence, blackouts, accidents at German factories, disruption of parliamentary elections in European states and leaking of compromising information. There is reason to believe that their cells are not only in the Isles, but also in the Continental Europe itself, where there are many dissatisfied with the authoritarian policies of Berlin.

In the meantime, London has gained strength. Chaos was mastered by the former car racing driver, playboy and philanthropist Max Mosley, son of the notorious British politician, who led a beau monde of various nationalist groups and organized crime groups. The tough guys under the banner of the English national revolution were able to disperse all the smaller competitors and establish at least some stability in the British capital. Reviving industries allowed to feed the masses and to arm new fighters, which strengthened the city's defenses.

Thanks to the Mosleyists, London has become an even more serious fortress city compared to the first attempt to storm it.

It is worth describing what East Anglia was before and what it is now. The region was never densely populated and remained largely agrarian in Britain's best years. Suffolk and Norfolk industries could not compete with such mastodons as Birmingham, Newcastle and others. In the Thatcher years, the area also underwent de-industrialization, which led to a flourishing service industry. But with the outbreak of the crisis and the ensuing civil war in East Anglia began a mass exodus to the countryside, not only because of the fighting, but also because of the sky-rocketing impoverishment of the city. The best way to set up rural life was for the National Anarchists, who had long been preparing to survive together and apart from the state.

Suffolk once had a local nuclear power plant and Ipswich port, but under the pretext of security, the occupation government stopped its work and the port switched exclusively to the service of military cargoes.

Nevertheless, because of Berlin's increasing tightening of the screws on environmental regulations, some are moving to conditionally safe Ipswich, where the governor is happy to give them all the perks just to give jobs to the public. This is how East Anglia gets useful industrial complexes for itself. Some of them even produce weapons, and these factories are owned by people connected with Günzel.

Starting Situation.

As stated earlier, the situation is unpleasant for the interventionists due to the significant reduction of the official garrison. Even PMCs and National Anarchist units could not cover the needs of the East Anglian government. This led to Norfolk being filled with a variety of brigands who plundered cargo convoys for arms and sustenance, and the county capital, Norwich, effectively ceased to be subject to the occupation administration. In order to combat this problem, the interventionists are forced to launch a punitive northern campaign.
One of the episodes of the Norfolk cleansing operation.
Having made the rear more secure, the intervention forces need to survey abandoned American military bases for equipment and request more ammunition to ensure superiority in the skies over London and replenish motorized units.
The first part of the starting focus tree
Also of note is the "Guns and Butter" mechanic. This mechanic depicts the interaction of the East Anglian administration with the largely rural population and the army, which is heavily influenced by mercenaries. Not only sticks but also carrots are needed to keep order. It is important for interventionists to maintain high contentment of the people through various measures in the form of, for example, farm subsidies or humanitarian aid, and loyalty of PMCs in relation to them, for which the player can increase the salaries of mercenaries or arrange a feast for them. In turn, it is also worth paying attention to the development of living standards and professionalism of the troops. To do this, the interventionists at the initial stage, involve the National-Anarchist People's Committees in improving the lives of villagers, as well as increasing the training of PMC personnel.
The main interface of the "Guns and Butter" mechanic, displaying indicators of mood and development of locals and mercenaries.

However, administrations cannot only indulge the interests of the masses and the generals. So we can force civilians to borrow some money through war bonds or nationalize businesses, as well as send mercenaries to beat the outlaws in the forests and lower the requirements for recruits to expand human resources.
Decisions from the "Guns and Butter" mechanics. With these, we can interact with the people and mercenaries, and extract various bonuses from this.
Preparations for the Battle of London are going according to plan; help from Berlin will allow the interventionists not only to achieve victory, but also to restore peaceful life in the liberated territories. But first, let's check our e-mails.

So, because of the NSIS cyber-terrorists, the interventionists were left without the patronage of the Federal Republic of Germany, which means they have less chance of winning against Mosley's London dictatorship. But all is not yet lost, we were able to get everything we need out of Germany, and thanks to the starting focus tree we can also successfully turn East Anglia into a reliable fortress. The left part of the focus tree will allow us to take direct control of critical infrastructure, the middle one will allow us to organize peaceful life in the rear, and the right one will allow us to raise the necessary infantry units to hold the front. The last focus is the final stage of preparation for the assault on London, with the interventionists deciding to entrench themselves before the battle and choosing tactics against the nationalist organized criminal groups.
Full starting focus tree for the Interventionists
During the war itself you can take focuses from this additional tree to get more trumps up your sleeve against the Nationalists.
Additional focus tree available during the war with the Nationalists
And so Westminister is taken, thanks to the efforts of three East Anglian heroes: mercenary commander Reinhard Günzel, English volunteer leader Troy Southgate, and Joseph Maria Klumba, head of the department itself. We have already been acquainted with them above. The triumvirate of field commanders after the liberation of the capital were immediately faced with the question of what to do next. Each of them saw the future of England differently, but the years of being under siege had brought them together to the point where none of them wanted to unleash a power race. As a result, after the battle, the three most influential men in the Department and their aides decide to hold a secret meeting of the command at Greenwich Observatory (hereafter "Council at Greenwich"), where they must reach a compromise on which the future of the occupied lands depends.
Council at Greenwich
Let's look at each of them.

So let's assume that the Council at Greenwich decides to give power to Günzel and his mercenaries. Those assembled are persuaded by the arguments that the mercenaries were the main strike force in the battle for London, and for the blood spilled they are most entitled to power.

Reinhard Günzel, as a soldier of fortune, wants to turn the state into a fiefdom for himself and his friends, but in any case he needs the support of the rich, and the grassroots, and even foreign partners. For this purpose, with the help of the administrative branch, the Wild Geese free very rich prisoners for large sums of money, take new collaborators to their power, build their vertical of power, form the Ipswich Trade League - a trade league of towns, each with its own laws, collectively resolving disputes and having a contract with Günzel for protection against external threats. The mercenaries also rescue their "right-wing" associates from Berlin, who can be useful as organizers , and even try to find common ground with the notorious hackers and improve the situation of the grassroots with charity.
Administrative focus tree for the Mercenaries
The economic program of the new East Anglian leadership involves the use of financial fraud to accumulate funds and place a significant portion of the enterprises in the hands of the generals. Also aware of his notoriety for alienating the few foreign investors, Günzel decides to open the country to smugglers of all stripes, which brings a substantial number of kickbacks to the treasury. The deregulation of the economy will nurture a layer of enterprising citizens who will revitalize the state economy in many areas. Industry without environmental regulations will be able to produce more goods, including for other states, the banking sector will enrich itself through intricate schemes, and agriculture will become so good that they will learn to make good beer in England.
Economic focus tree for the Mercenaries
But first and foremost Reinhard is interested in the transformation of his PMC. And after mastering the lands of England, he is able to realize many ambitions of the company, taking into account the experience of Bob Denard, the king of mercenaries of the twentieth century. Günzel's group will adopt aviation and navy, will produce its own equipment. In the ranks of mercenaries will appear elite assault groups, trained in action in different terrains and sabotage. The mercenaries will expand their ranks considerably, at the expense of British volunteers. Consideration would be given to supplying such a large group. Having carried out all the reforms, Günzel will finally be able to test his brainchild in conflicts throughout Eurasia and North Africa.
Military focus tree for the Mercenaries
Having subjugated the whole of England, the Landsknechts finally turn it into Disneyland for adults. Many palaces and castles will be privatized. Nature reserves and national parks will be sold off as hunting grounds. Many objects of art will go abroad under the hammer. However, there are positive changes: the country will greatly expand the autonomy of the regions, a full digital infrastructure will appear, and Günzel will be able to accommodate world leaders with generous gifts.
Final focus tree for the Mercenaries

The Ipswich Trade League will develop into a commonwealth of free cities, where the richest agglomerations have the deciding vote. In this way, the cities will have a common investment treasury, which they will allocate to various major projects designed to make the cities more attractive. The mercenaries themselves will also have their own influence and will be able to propose their own plans, especially for defense, such as building their own private nuclear shield.
The Mechanics of Influence of Cities in the Ipswich League, which features the richest cities in England. The first screenshot shows the basic interface and the gameplay tips.

The second shows the projects that the player can offer to the cities.
Günzel's professional army and the militia of the cities of England, will ensure the sovereignty of England. In this country every man will have unlimited opportunity in the exercise of his will for a price.

Or consider another possibility: The Silent Revolution took place. Troy Southgate convinced the Council in Greenwich to hand power over to the people, gaining support from a partially sympathetic Klumb. The Black Guard, organized by the National Anarchists, was able to contain London's bandit gangs and take control of the city.

First of all, the Black Guards, as their ideals should be, give everyone all the freedoms, and even release many prisoners. This allows us to immediately draw to our side the common people, who were shocked by the entry of the interventionist forces into the city, as well as immediately make contact with the NSIS, with whom we now have nothing more to share.
One of the main goals of the National-Anarchist Movement is the maximum decentralization of England. Since the advent of the Normans, the kings of England have been tightening the screws and subjugating the province as much as possible, robbing it for the prosperity of the elites in the City of London. The city, which before the war had been sustained by financial speculation, could no longer be home to hundreds of thousands of people and settlers left for the province to establish new communes. Guided by Troy Southgate's manifesto, the NAM participates in the organization of autonomous and mono-cultural communes. The communal arrangement, however, does not prevent the emergence of the strongest and wisest who can have influence over their community. But it is important for them to understand that their power determines the trust of their fellow communards. It is also still important to have unity among the communes, otherwise they will all be weak before an invasion, for which, in the manner of the Anglo-Saxon Witenagemot, local councils are convened in the communes and then the All-English Assembly of the Communes. In the congress itself there will be periodic discussions of communal conflicts of interest, proposals from the player himself, and so on. Careful attention should be paid to the mood of the communes. After all, unresolved problems, excessive executive power, and lack of agitation can lead to discord among the communities, which can cut off the player from being able to build, influence policy, and even conduct research. The natural encouragement of the strong and educated from below rather than above would create a stratum of ideologically-minded youth capable of both standing up for their loved ones and gnawing at the granite of science.
Administrative focus tree for the National-Anarchists

The main interface of the Communal Assembly. On it you can see the number of communes that trust the actions of the player.

The main interaction with the Communal Assembly, there will be also periodic events about incidents in the communes, which will have to be resolved by the player.
Avoid distrust on the part of the communes, as this can lead to the player losing control of the country.
The economic policy of the national anarchists is to de-urbanize the country and roll back the consumer society. People must come to the truth that they do not need a Coke, a Ford Mustang, and a new console to live. Moreover, the use of the modern monetary system, which has ceased to provide anything in the chaos, must be phased out. Communards will organize barter, service exchanges. Some communes might use currency, but only for trade, and never for financial activity. Industrial production would become less massive, but sufficient to meet the basic needs of both consumers and producers. But world capital does not doze off, and it must be prevented from intensifying in England in order to tempt citizens. Thanks to reforms on the part of the NAM, the usurers will lose everything, the loot will be returned to the people and a great harvest will come.

Economic focus tree for the National-Anarchists
In the military, the national anarchists intend to create a militia. People will be given weapons for self-defense, communards will pledge to each other to engage in periodic military assemblies, and leaders of the militia will learn war from the textbooks of famous generals. In order to improve the defense capabilities of the communes, their inhabitants will learn how to assemble armored bulldozers as tanks, how to make howitzers and air defenses from water pipes. An entire community will emerge to serve as aviation to cover the skies over vacant land. A particularly difficult solution will be to create special units. The principles oblige them to be formed according to the irregular conscription scheme, in which everyone will also be trained for specific kinds of combat at the same military training camps, but not all the defenders will have enough time for additional training. On the other hand, forming the elite of the People's Liberation Army of England from volunteers could undermine the foundations of the communes because the special units would put themselves above the rest of the soldiers.

Military focus tree for the National-Anarchists
And so, in spite of all the difficulties, the National-Anarchists were able to unite England. Soldiers could finally go home, students in universities would educate each other, communes would come into contact with comrades in struggle around the world, a new culture would form that would encourage healthy lifestyles, large and independent families, religious and national traditions. The question of urban agglomerations will become particularly important. Large cities may still be needed for industries, transport interactions. However, the longer people stay in them, the weaker they become from the urban lifestyle. By solving all the issues, true freedom will finally come to England, which neither leftist nor rightist ideologues have been able to realize. Everyone would be able to live in a healthy environment, close to nature. In this society, everyone lives from their labor, not from deception. And whoever tries to disrupt this idyll will be rebuffed.
Final tree for the National-Anarchists

And the final version of the leadership issue: the Council ay Greenwich decides to keep Joseph Maria Klumb in power. His skills as a commandant helped the interventionists to hold East Anglia and bring revenge on the London militants. His friendship with both Günzel and Southgate would mitigate conflicts between mercenaries and locals.

First and foremost, the governor is tasked with bringing order to a crime-filled city. Even the Westminister is home to a hundred brothels. England has endured several years of devastation and chaos, and the only true solution is to restore democracy. But it will be an entirely new state. The stale monarchy will be replaced by a presidential republic. Instead of the eternal scramble of Labor and Tory, the country will have a multi-party parliament where no party is in a position of absolute majority. The Anglican Church will be reformed to appease the population.
Administrative focus tree for the Governor

1) Distribution of seats in the New British Parliament
2) By pointing at seats in parliament, we can see what party they belong to

3) It is through parliament that the integration of the lands takes place. And their seats must be fought for

4) Periodically, parties introduce bills that our party can either support or sabotage. But we need the support of the majority of deputies
5) A screen of interaction with one of the parties, through which we can convince their deputies to vote for one with us.
The governor's economic plan involves building an industrial base that will allow a highly mechanized military contingent to be formed, now out of Brits. The first thing to do is to send prisoners of war on public works to get the infrastructure in order. After that we need to solve the problem of imports and distribution of resources, get funding and provide a technological base. The governor will go in search of economic partners in Europe. It is important to create large conglomerates, which, concentrating as much capacity as possible, could revive the mass production of not only military goods, but also consumer goods. By supplying industry with military orders, we will be able to raise the standard of living of citizens, so that even in difficult conditions of internecine strife, we can get everyone. Also important will be protectionism, without which all the beginnings of the fledgling military-industrial complex will be blighted.

Economic focus tree for the Governor
As stated earlier, Kloomb plans to transform the army into a high-tech machine, using a huge number of military vehicles. This requires the centralization of existing army departments, as well as the accelerated training of new machine operators. Elite mechanized units will be created, for a successful offensive against further players in the English anarchy. The question of generalship is a special one, which we will either Anglicize or retain the leading positions of German officers.
Military focus tree for the Governor
During the game you will receive messages from the previously mentioned NSIS, who will keep a close eye on your actions. You will not be able to dodge their spam, and you will have to respond to every email.

One of the hackers' emails
After the unification of England, the governor will have a short period to bring the country to peace, including holding the first presidential election in the history of England, where many parties can nominate their candidates. Among them could be the English Centre Party led by the governor himself, the English Freedom Party, representing the interests of large industrialists and mercenaries, the English People's Party of the former National Anarchists, and so on. You can try to win the presidential race for any one of these, but be aware that unexpected twists and turns are always possible.

Final focus tree of the Governor

Decisions on the election race for one of the parties will appear in the mechanics of parliament
In any case, freedom and democracy will come to England again, but it will be a completely different state, without the vestiges of case law, but with equal opportunities. And most importantly, a peaceful sky will return over the heads of millions of islanders.
Ironically, from a military dictatorship in England could grow the most democratic society possible. Joseph Maria Klumb was far-sighted enough not to turn the country he conquered into a dictatorship, but to build a people's government. And what's more, a federal form of government would keep the new state intact, E pluribus unum.

And that's it for today, until we meet again.
A message from Turkmenbashy: many thanks to Vlasov for GFX, Glushkin for mechanics, Thakin, Durumwirate, Adrien and ShiSponk for localisation, Buba for title, Wlchnk for advices and quality control of this faction and diary. Also, Nikitos, happy past birthday, we wish his channel prosperity.
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2022.11.18 06:04 Gallionella ALLS17C

Even though mice can accumulate the plaques associated with Alzheimer’s, they do not display the memory problems seen in people.
Some researchers have also argued that amyloid β protein deposits in animals are different to humans, and therefore might not be suitable for comparison.
So what’s the verdict?
Looking into risk factors for developing Alzheimer’s is worthwhile.
But to suggest picking your nose, which introduces C. pneumoniae into the body, may raise the risk of Alzheimer’s in humans – based on this study – is overreach. –
Glaciers across the globe - including the last ones in Africa - will be unavoidably lost by 2050 due to climate change, the UN says in a report.
A third of glaciers located in UN World Heritage sites will melt within three decades, a UNESCO report found.
Mount Kilimanjaro's last glaciers will vanish as will glaciers in the Alps and Yosemite National Park in the US.
They will melt regardless of the world's actions to combat climate change, the authors say.
Vanishing glaciers threaten Europe's water supplyIce and sled-dogs disappear as Greenland warms upWorld's glaciers melting at a faster pace
The report, which makes projections based on satellite data, comes as world leaders prepare to meet in Egypt for next week's COP27 climate change conference.
The results reported desynchronization of peripheral circadian clocks in gastrointestinal tissues and microbiome arrhythmicity from genetic and environmental circadian disruption models. Alternations were observed especially in microbial taxa involved in lipid and sugar metabolism and short-chain fatty acid fermentation.
In the Bmal1SCNfl/- mice, arrhythmicity of the microbiome was associated with adiposity, disruption of glucose homeostasis, and weight gain. Similarly, the SSW mice displayed an increase in body weight and plasma glucose levels associated with disrupting microbiome oscillation patterns.
The investigation of food fraud databases, a semi-structured literature review and online interviews with stakeholders revealed that adulteration is the major fraud type in ginger products. And the most vulnerable ginger products are ground ginger and finely processed ginger. The ginger supply chain from China to the EU comprises nine stages and is medium vulnerable to food fraud, both in regard to opportunities and motivational drivers
Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at the University of Michigan, employs a unique tool in his research on the impacts of climate change on coastal ecosystems: fish urine. He and the researchers in his Coastal Ecology and Conservation Lab use fish urine and artificial reefs to study aquatic ecosystem conservation and food insecurity.
Allgeier said his research aims to lay the groundwork for future solutions in conserving coastal ecosystems, such as coral reefs and seagrass, which are under increased threat from factors associated with climate change and habitat encroachment.
A new study, led by experts at the University of Nottingham found that the risk of stomach bleeding caused by using aspirin long-term, can be reduced with a short course of antibiotics, potentially improving the safety of aspirin when used to prevent heart attacks, strokes and possibly some cancers.
In summary, the study identified green tea catechins and resveratrol as promising candidates for anti-plaque properties, functional neuroprotective features against AD, and minimal toxicity. Although citicoline and metformin treatments demonstrated plaque suppression and low toxicity, these compounds were not protective against HSV-induced perturbations in neuronal signaling. Overall, the study established a simple platform for rapid screening and characterization of compounds against AD in 2D cell cultures and 3D human cortical tissue models.
Researchers continue to question how the monkeypox virus has evolved over time. The efficacy of current CDC-approved drugs to treat monkeypox have been suboptimal, likely because they were originally developed to treat HIV and herpes but have since received emergency use authorization in an attempt to control the recent monkeypox outbreak.
“One hypothesis is when patients were being treated for HIV and herpes with these drugs, they may have also been infected with monkeypox without knowing, and the monkeypox virus got smarter and mutated to evade the drugs,” Singh said. “Another hypothesis is the monkeypox virus may be hijacking proteins we have in our bodies and using them to become more infectious and pathogenic.”
IceCube neutrinos give us first glimpse into the inner depths of an active galaxy
It took many years of measurements using the IceCube Neutrino Observatory and new statistical methods to make it possible for Resconi and her team to accumulate enough neutrino events for their discovery.
Detective work in the eternal ice
The IceCube telescope, located in the ice of the Antarctic, has been detecting the light traces resulting from incident neutrinos since 2011. "Based on their energy and their angle of incidence we can reconstruct where they come from," says TUM scientist Dr. Theo Glauch. "The statistical evaluation shows a highly significant cluster of neutrino impacts coming from the direction of the active galaxy NGC 1068. This means we can assume with a probability bordering on certainty that the high-energy neutrino radiation comes from this galaxy."
Companies often don't match climate talk and lobbying, study says
The Royal Hawaiian Beach in Waikiki is a popular beach at the center of Hawai'i's tourism hub, with a valuation of $2.2 billion, according to a 2016 study. Two recently published studies provide new understanding of how and why this iconic beach is chronically eroding -- enabling coastal managers and policymakers to more effectively manage the coastline.
Growing native bushfoods could reverse environmental degradation and offer better food security. But how do we get bushfoods in the agricultural sector in a market saturated by modern crops?
New research from James Cook University's TropWATER has mapped Australia's entire landscape to uncover the best places to grow more than 170 bushfoods.
Azure is taking a more centralized approach. They 3D print the floor, roof, and walls of their homes in their 10,000-square-foot factory in Culver City (outside LA). By the time a home leaves the factory, it’s 99 percent complete; it gets shipped to its site on a flatbed truck, and all that’s left to do is connect the modules to one another and to the foundation and utilities.
A 30-minute, self-administered online training module can protect adolescents from unhealthy responses to stress and related mental health consequences, suggests research funded in part by the National Institutes of Health. Scientists designed the training module, known as the “synergistic mindsets intervention,” to empower adolescents to harness both stressful events and stress responses to support their goals.
“If you own an infant head-shaping pillow, throw it away; do not donate or give it to anyone else,” the alert said. “Be aware that infant head shaping pillows are not safe or effective for preventing or treating flat head syndrome or other medical conditions.”
In most cases, flat head syndrome will go away on its own as an infant grows up, the FDA said. It is not painful and it does not cause any developmental concerns. Using a head-shaping pillow may delay necessary medical evaluations and mask something more serious, such as craniosynostosis, where a developing infant’s skull bones join together too early.
In grassland soils, the types of viruses are dramatically different over short distances in space and time. The makeup of viral communities also was very sensitive to changes in soil moisture caused by an experimental drought. These effects may have downstream implications for the amount and pathways of soil-carbon cycling.
Egg whites can be transformed into a material capable of filtering microplastics from seawater
Russia, Ukraine and much of eastern Europe will be lucky if the Ukraine war ends without disaster at Zaporizhzhia. The world should be ashamed that, nearly 70 years after US President Dwight D. Eisenhower proclaimed the era of ‘atoms for peace’, people are depending on luck. The world’s governments hold the power to prevent disaster. Will they act?
Nature 611, 232-235 (2022)
Middle-income and working-class Californians represented by far the largest block of the million-plus households in the state that installed rooftop solar in 2021, according to a new Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory study
The study shows how essential California’s subsidies for rooftop solar are in helping deploy the clean, renewable power source across the state. Solar not only cuts rates for consumers suffering from astronomical bills caused by California’s monopoly utilities like Pacific Gas & Electric, but it also helps to fight the climate crisis.
Strange scientific theory predicts a second type of liquid water
There are at least 15 different types of solid water (ice). Now, scientists believe that there might be a second type of liquid water.
Plant-derived materials such as cellulose often exhibit thermally insulating properties. A new material made from nanoscale cellulose fibers shows the reverse, high thermal conductivity. This makes it useful in areas previously dominated by synthetic polymer materials. Materials based on cellulose have environmental benefits over polymers, so research on this could lead to greener technological applications where thermal conductivity is needed.
As the world heads into COP27, there is no room for bad information on climate change in our major newspapers. Allow me to share the latest on what’s happening in Greenland based on information from scientists whose major focus includes study of the ice sheet and the Arctic region.
Drs. Twila Moon and Nikoosh Carlo, who conduct research relevant to high northern latitudes, recently exchanged thoughts with Johanna Chao Kreilick and me about a recent article that missed the mark on Greenland and climate change.
How a quest for mathematical truth and complex models can lead to useless scientific predictions – new research
When put to the test, bees have proved over and over again that they've got a lot more to offer than pollinating, making honey and being fiercely loyal to a queen. The industrious insects can count and alter their behavior when things seem difficult, and now some scientists say there's proof they also like to play.
Present results indicated that after 5 weeks of feeding trial and as compared to control, the ZnONPs supplementation groups recorded higher body weight, improved feed consumption, feed conversion ratio and performance index. Serum biochemical analyses revealed that serum cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein and uric acid decreased significantly, while high density lipoprotein and liver enzyme concentrations were increased significantly. Meanwhile, zinc accumulation in serum, liver and breast and thigh muscle were linearly increased with increasing zinc supplementation. It could be concluded that supplementation of ZnONPs to broiler diet at 40 or 60 mg/kg improved productive performance, birds' physiological status and the lower levels Zn (40 mg/kg diet) revealed promising results and can be used as an effective feed additive in broilers.
Scientists at Meta, the parent company of Facebook and Instagram, have used an artificial intelligence (AI) language model to predict the unknown structures of more than 600 million proteins belonging to viruses, bacteria and other microbes.
Economic interests cloud hazard reductions in the European regulation of substances of very high concern
Therefore, the Earth must have been magnetized at a very early epoch, either preimpact or as a result of the impact itself. Either way, any realistic model of the formation of the Earth–Moon system must include magnetic field evolution. This requirement may ultimately constrain the models sufficiently to discriminate between the various candidates.
A 10-year retrospective analysis of Toxoplasma gondii qPCR screening in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients
Economy-wide evaluation of CO2 and air quality impacts of electrification in the United States
Ad Armageddon
Windows users are well aware that Microsoft's operating system is already rife with ads. Well, they're more like annoying suggestions that look exactly like obnoxious pop-ups to try out its new features or apps, like Microsoft Edge, the web browser that no one uses but everyone is forced to know still exists.
But now, it looks like Microsoft is considering implementing ads for real, or in other words, allowing third parties to start putting ads up too — a planned tradeoff to allow the company to sell cheaper PCs.
A citizen petition is a means by which an individual or organization can request changes in health regulations from the FDA. Among other things, Valisure's petition asks the agency to request recalls for the products listed and to review and update regulations and guidance related to the use of impurities like benzene in consumer cosmetic products.
Of the samples that Valisure tested and included in the petition, some potentially contained benzene levels as high as 170 times the FDA's concentration limit of two parts per million, the laboratory said.
"The detection of high levels of benzene in dry shampoos should be cause for significant concern since these products are likely used indoors, where benzene may linger and be inhaled for prolonged periods of time," Valisure CEO David Light said in the release. "These and other issues identified by Valisure, including the detection of benzene in body spray, hand sanitizer, and sunscreen products, strongly underscore the importance of independent testing and its need to be better integrated into an increasingly complex and vulnerable global supply chain."
Mohammad Aldergham said he saw families let their guard down and connect within a day of the camp starting.(Supplied: Richie Ho for Variety Tasmania)
For Mr Tran, that moment came after dinner on the first night.
"Some of the kids know each other and they communicate even though they don't say anything," Mr Tran said.
"Most of the kids are non-verbal, but the way that they communicate is so genuine and we can learn that part from them."
Another Motor Mouth camp?
Motor Mouth will be held again in Tasmania next year and Mr Tran intends to participate again.
He said his biggest lesson from the camp was continued modelling on the AAC device to increase the range of symbols, letters, words and phrases available.
"As long as we keep modelling the device, so that Leo can use it to communicate what he wants, that's the most important thing family and friends can do," he said.
"Hopefully by the time the next camp comes, we will have more stories of our modelling and can be an example for other families."
Brain changes in autism are far more sweeping than previously known, UCLA-led study finds
The study is the most comprehensive effort yet to study how autism affects the brain at the molecular level
Geneva —
U.N. rights chief Volker Turk on Saturday urged Twitter's new owner, Elon Musk, to make respect for human rights central to the social network after he sacked around half the company's employees.
Reports of Musk laying off the platform's entire human rights team were "not, from my perspective, an encouraging start," Turk said in an open letter.
An AI-created impression of a quantized black hole. Image Credit: NightCafe Creator AI
A team modeling the behavior of black holes has come to the conclusion the masses of the universe’s densest objects are quantized, similar to the way electrons orbiting atoms can only have specific energies. Moreover, just as particles can simultaneously be in multiple places at once, known as superposition, the authors of a new paper claim black holes can have two masses, being simultaneously a combination of a probability of each mass. If you’re struggling to grasp these concepts don’t worry too much, even the authors of a paper admit it wasn’t what they expected.
This bizarre little organism doesn't have a brain, or a nervous system; its blobby, bright-yellow body is just one cell. This slime mold species has thrived, more or less unchanged, for a billion years in its damp, decaying habitats.
And, in the last decade, it's been changing how we think about cognition and problem-solving.
"I think it's the same kind of revolution that occurred when people realized that plants could communicate with each other," said biologist Audrey Dussutour of the French National Center for Scientific Research.
In a bid to increase sales and reduce food waste, more and more of Japan’s convenience stores and supermarkets are letting artificial intelligence analyze data such as past sales figures to decide what discounts to apply to perishable products.
A short exposure to a semi-natural habitat alleviates the honey bee hive microbial imbalance caused by agricultural stress
The most conspicuous no-show will be China's Xi Jinping, whose leadership was renewed last month at a Communist Party Congress.
US President Joe Biden has said he will come, but only after legislative elections on Tuesday that could see either or both houses of Congress fall into the hands of Republicans hostile to international action on climate change.
Cooperation between the United States and China—the world's two largest economies and carbon polluters—has been crucial to rare breakthroughs in the nearly 30-year saga of UN climate talks, including the 2015 Paris Agreement.
“It seems that those children with eczema in particular also have more severe symptoms of neurodevelopmental delay. We need to understand why. It may lead to opportunities for earlier detection and supports to improve outcomes for both developmental processes.”
The trial is studying the lifespan of the lab grown cells compared with infusions of standard red blood cells from the same donor. The lab-grown blood cells are all fresh, so the trial team expect them to perform better than a similar transfusion of standard donated red cells, which contains cells of varying ages.
Additionally, if manufactured cells last longer in the body, patients who regularly need blood may not need transfusions as often. That would reduce iron overload from frequent blood transfusions, which can lead to serious complications.
The researchers theorise that there is a neurological link between these physiological processes and music. They believe that our anatomy can pick up on low frequencies, affecting our perception of “groove”, spontaneous movement and rhythm.
Cameron suggests that the super-low frequencies may influence the vestibular system which controls body position and movement through the inner ear.
“Very low frequencies may also affect vestibular sensitivity, adding to people’s experience of movement. Nailing down the brain mechanisms involved will require looking the effects of low frequencies on the vestibular, tactile, and auditory pathways,” says Cameron.
The 4,281-foot-long (1,305 meters) tunnel, which brought water to thousands of people in its heyday, was discovered by an Egyptian-Dominican Republic archaeological team, the Egyptian Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities said in a statement (opens in new tab).
Ancient Egyptian builders constructed the 6.6-foot-high (2 m) tunnel at a depth of about 65 feet (20 m) beneath the ground, Kathleen Martínez, a Dominican archaeologist and director of the team that discovered the tunnel, told Live Science in an email. "[It] is an exact replica of Eupalinos Tunnel in Greece, which is considered as one of the most important engineering achievements of antiquity," Martinez said. The Eupalinos tunnel, in Samos, a Greek island in the eastern Aegean Sea, also carried water.
? How fossil fuel hegemony works
The concept of “hegemony” was developed by the Italian intellectual Antonio Gramsci. In the 1920s, Gramsci sought to explain how dominant classes maintained their power beyond the use of force and coercion.
He argued hegemony involved a continuous process of winning the consent of key actors in society such as industrialists, the media, and religious and educational institutions, to form a ruling bloc. Civil society would thus accept the prevailing order, dampening any threat of revolution.
Gramsci’s ideas help us understand the lack of action in response to the climate crisis. In particular, it helps explain the business sector’s inordinate influence on climate policy across the world.
? climate experts and small and developing countries celebrated an early victory. After 27 years of UN-led climate negotiations and 30 years of activist campaigns, the issue of compensation for victims of the climate crisis has made it onto the agenda for the first time this year.
The issue of compensation is known as "loss and damage," which refers to the loss and damage of cultures, of livelihoods, of properties and of lives due to the human-induced climate crisis.
People who use wood-burning stoves are needed to take part in the UK’s first study to understand how an air quality alert system could help reduce the health risks posed by wood smoke around their homes and in their communities.
Academics at the universities of Nottingham and Sheffield are studying the Burner Alert system – the first and only system in the UK.
“The question is: What happens when piracy is also an issue?” he said. “Can bundling encourage piracy to a point where the profit loss from piracy more than wipes out the benefits from reduced elasticity?”
Piracy is widespread because technology makes it easy to make illegal copies and distribute them, Lahiri said.
For example, the penultimate season of the TV series “Game of Thrones” was pirated more than 1 billion times, according to a 2017 report by the anti-piracy analyst firm MUSO.
“Consumers’ frustrations become obvious if we consider ‘Game of Thrones,’” Lahiri said. “To watch it, you must pay for an HBO subscription package that includes access to a variety of programming, including shows that you may not be willing or have the time to watch. Many netizens and bloggers believe that this pushes consumers toward piracy since consumers are often not interested in paying for programming they do not intend to watch.”
Early head-and-neck cooling in concussed ice hockey players resulted in shorter time to return-to-play. This expanded study of Swedish ice hockey teams, in which the median time to initiate head-neck cooling following a concussion was 10 minutes,
Supercomputer simulations have helped scientists reveal in a bilayer moiré system a new species of an electronic phenomenon called an exciton, which is an electrically neutral quasiparticle, yet one that can carry energy and consists of an electron and electron ‘hole' that can be created for example by light impinging certain semiconductors and other materials.
Cost concerns increasingly outweighed worries about the pandemic as the top reason Americans deferred healthcare, according to a new study by Qualtrics (Nasdaq: XM), the leader and creator of the experience management category. Between 2020 and 2022 the share of consumers deferring care because of pandemic-related health concerns decreased by 11 percentage points from 28% to 17% while the share of consumers deferring care because of cost concerns grew by four percentage points from 27% to 31%.
“If people can’t afford to access care in the first place, then not only are they having a poor experience, but we will never fully realize the health outcomes in our communities that we aspire to.” - Qualtrics Chief Medical Officer Dr. Adrienne Boissy
This study establishes the feasibility of manipulating soil microbial communities to control the composition and function of bacteria associated with plants. The findings could help design ecosystems to promote the growth and health of plants, which is crucial for sustainable agriculture.
The approach developed in the study is ironic since biologically, bacteria use CRISPR-Cas systems to counter attacking viruses. Biotechnology has adapted CRISPR-Cas systems to edit genes in animals and humans. But in the current study, the researchers flip the board and load viruses with CRISPR-Cas machinery to change bacterial behavior, specifically when the target bacterium exists within a microbiome.
Pollinating bees aren’t fond of fertilizers or pesticides due to the way chemicals impact the electric field around flowers, according to a study published today in the journal PNAS Nexus.
“This is the first study that shows that chemical-induced changes in plant electrophysiology translate to a change in floral electric fields,” Ellard Hunting, a research associate in sensory biophysics at the University of Bristol, tells Popular Mechanics. “So, chemistry translates to a change in plant physiology, changing the physics around a flower, which in turn translates to a change in bee behavior.”
Al Gore said the world could reduce emissions by 50% by the end of this decade, and reach net zero by 2050, with the help of now-available technologies.
“We are capable of solving this crisis because once the world reaches true net-zero, temperatures will stop increasing in as little as three to five years,” he said.
But the answer to the question of how skeletons evolved before becoming bendy backbones has long eluded scientists.
Because the soft tissue surrounding the skeleton is rarely preserved, this has remained a palaeontological riddle.
Four specimens of a species called Gangtoucunia aspera allow scientists to finally answer these questions. The 514-million-year-old fossils preserved impressions of the animals’ soft tissues – including the gut, mouthparts and the tissue surrounding the hollow-tube skeleton.
For most of us, what helps the most is knowing that cognitive dissonance is an everyday human experience, and likely to pass.
If we are not too hard on ourselves, and open to evaluating our behaviour in a much broader context, we shouldn’t feel too much discomfort.
This is how music begins to play a part in social bonding. Infant-directed singing is a universal occurrence that fosters affiliative bonding across cultural boundaries. Infant-directed singing focuses the infant's attention, controls their level of arousal, and eases their suffering.
Singing to babies helps caregivers feel more emotionally connected to their infants and controls their own levels of arousal. The process of physiological entrainment is a promising candidate as a potential mechanism through which infant-directed singing may promote social behaviors.
Muiica-Parodi et al. [1] reported that a one-week KD increases functional brain network stability, restoring it to that seen in younger people. They showed that in younger (<50 years old) adults, nutritional ketosis stabilized functional networks. Most importantly, in a separate, larger sample, they found network instability increased with age and with decreases in cognitive functioning [1], with the aging effect being accelerated in young people with T2DM. Although ketosis has a significant cumulative and synergistic effect over the years, these network changes occurred with a single week of ketosis, suggesting short-term adaptations to network stability are feasible with a KD. Ruling out any effects of weight loss on network stability, the authors reported similar network stabilization when giving participants a single exogenous ketone ester drink.
PHS now recommends an optimal fluoride concentration of 0.7 milligrams/liter (mg/L). In this guidance, the optimal concentration of fluoride in drinking water is the concentration that provides the best balance of protection from dental caries while limiting the risk of dental fluorosis. The earlier PHS recommendation for fluoride concentrations was based on outdoor air temperature of geographic areas and ranged from 0.7–1.2 mg/L. This updated guidance is intended to apply to community water systems that currently fluoridate, or that will initiate fluoridation, and is based on considerations that include:!po=0.515464
PHS acknowledges the concerns of commenters and appreciates the efforts of all who submitted responses to the Federal Register notice describing its recommendation to lower the fluoride concentration in drinking water for the prevention of dental caries. The full federal panel considered these responses in the context of best available science but did not alter its recommendation that the optimal fluoride -concentration in drinking water for prevention of dental caries in the United States be reduced to 0.7 mg/L, from the previous range of 0.7–1.2 mg/L, based on the following information:
Fluoridation: Follow the Money By Carol Kopf, Media Director, Fluoride Action Network
Multi-billion dollar international conglomerates, which benefit from tooth decay and fluoride sales, pour money into organized dentistry which is behind virtually every fluoridation initiative.The American Dental Association (ADA), many of its over 250 constituent state and city associations are benefactors along with other fluoridation-promoting dental groups and schools.
Dentists, inside and outside of government and industry, seem to have vast amounts of money and influence to promote fluoridation. Where does it come from? As of July 18, 2022, a total of 85 human studies have investigated the relationship between fluoride and human intelligence. W-links
76 2022 These results, which were found among mother-child pairs living in fluoridated and non-fluoridated communities in Canada, underscore the importance of sufficient iodine intake in pregnancy to minimize the neurotoxicity of fluoride in boys.....
Furthermore, studies that examined vaccinated individuals who experienced breakthrough severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections found a high incidence of long COVID symptoms such as deteriorated musculoskeletal, neurological, and mental health among these individuals after recovery. This indicates that vaccination provides only limited protection against long COVID.
Melatonin is a cryoprotective hormone and chemical that exhibits anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunoregulatory activity and has been seen to impair viral infections, play a role in circadian rhythm maintenance, and be effective against diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. It is also involved in the activation of glutathione-synthesizing enzymes. Melatonin could potentially be a therapeutic agent in treating long COVID symptoms.
Last year, another study at Monash discovered strong electronic interactions in a 2D metal-organic framework. The researchers found signatures of magnetism in this material. They showed that this magnetism arose due to strong interactions that were only present when the non-magnetic components were brought together.
This material was grown on a metallic substrate. The substrate was important for the growth and measurement of the material.
Explainer: Metal-organic framework
A crystalline material where organic molecules are connected by metal atoms. Metal-organic frameworks can show many different properties by changing the molecules or metal atoms. Understanding quasiparticle excitations and their interactions is crucial for efforts to control complex materials (such as high-temperature superconductors and topological insulators) that may form the basis of future low-energy electronics and quantum information processing.
The widespread retrenchment in the U.S. technology industry has thrown thousands of workers in Silicon Valley out of work, a trend greatly amplified on Wednesday by Meta Platforms, the parent company of Facebook, which announced it would eliminate 13% of its workforce, amounting to more than 11,000 jobs.
The announcement followed on the heels of major layoffs at other tech firms, most recently Twitter, which is restructuring in the aftermath of its takeover by Tesla founder Elon Musk, and also business software firm Salesforce and social media giant Snap, Inc.
Other major tech firms, including Apple, Amazon and Alphabet, the parent company of Google, have said that they will slow or curtail new hiring.
Announcing the job cuts, Facebook founder and Meta CEO Mark Zuckerberg admitted he had made an error in judgment by assuming the sharp growth in online commerce that coincided with the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic signaled a permanent change in consumer habits.
Researchers have discovered that the neurotransmitter adenosine effectively acts as a brake to dopamine, another well-known neurotransmitter involved in motor control. The discovery could immediately suggest new avenues of drug development to treat symptoms of Parkinson's disease, a movement disorder where the loss of dopamine-producing cells has been widely implicated as a cause.
The Flint, Michigan water crisis has brought concern about lead toxicity in drinking water back into the headlines. But the public health issue goes well beyond Flint. According to recent estimates, more than half the population were exposed to high levels of lead as children. How does damage from lead exposure manifest as people age?
Children who are exposed to lead-contaminated drinking water may end up with a worse baseline of cognitive function in old age, according to new research.
The Hubble space telescope has captured supernova images from three different moments, according to a new video released by NASA Goddard. The video, which can be found embedded below, showcases the explosion of the supernova at three different points in time.
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